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  • Campos, Jaime (författare)
  • ICT tools for e-maintenance
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have made an impact on various parts of a company. The need of many companies of integrating the wealth of information and processes for profitable business has been highlighted since the middle of the 1980s. Further, the commercialization of the Internet began during the middle of the 1990s. The combinations of these developments and the positive impact of ICTs on maintenance and thereby on productivity have been, lately, realized by academia and industry alike, and a new concept, e-maintenance, has been coined.The main problem of the present work was "How ICT can be used for integrating various data and information to provide better decision support and improve productivity". The main problem addressed was divided into three sub research questions. (1) Which approach should be considered to develop e-maintenance systems? (2) How can web and agent technologies be used in e-maintenance? (3) Which ICT architecture and ICT tools should be used to enhance productivity in the organization/maintenance department and the decision-making process? The research process in this study was based on design science, .i.e. constructive research approach. However, during the first phases of the study has empirical studies been conducted to get an overall understanding of the domain of study.The present study first presents the state of the art. It was found that in many research projects the application of ICTs to condition-based maintenance (CBM) has been part of the whole work. Since CBM is the most desirable maintenance strategy it needs more focused attention. However,it was found that limited consistent and systematic efforts have been made, in an isolated manner,in industry and academia. A few researchers are using mobile devices, especially personal digital assistants (PDA) with embedded technology and even fewer with web technology.The study continues by presenting e-maintenance solutions. It goes through the modelling phase in the development of a system and suggests an ontology approach. Further, the use of web and agent technologies on a conceptual level was studied and an architecture was proposed for the same purpose, i.e. e-maintenance. Finally, a prototype was developed with the use of the ICTs tools and an architecture was proposed, Web and mobile architecture. It is an n-tier architecture, where the main client was a mobile device, i.e. PDA. The developed system with the use of various ICTs, viz. web technology, mobile device and wireless communication is believed to make maintenance personnel more productive and help to achieve better decisions.
  • Lindahl, Karl-Olof (författare)
  • On the linearization of non-Archimedean holomorphic functions near an indifferent fixed point
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We consider the problem of local linearization of power series defined over complete valued fields. The complex field case has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century, and renders a delicate number theoretical problem of small divisors related to diophantine approximation. Since a work of Herman and Yoccoz in 1981, there has been an increasing interest in generalizations to other valued fields like p-adic fields and various function fields. We present some new results in this domain of research. In particular, for fields of prime characteristic, the problem leads to a combinatorial problem of seemingly great complexity, albeit of another nature than in the complex field case. In cases for which linearization is possible, we estimate the size of linearization discs and prove existence of periodic points on the boundary. We also prove that transitivity and ergodicity is preserved under the linearization. In particular, transitivity and ergodicity on a sphere inside a non-Archimedean linearization disc is possible only for fields of p-adic numbers.
  • Thulin, Susanne, 1953- (författare)
  • Vad händer med lärandets objekt? : En studie av hur lärare och barn i förskolan kommunicerar naturvetenskapliga fenomen
  • 2006
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsarbete är att undersöka hur lärare i förskolan i samtal med barn tar sig an en i Läroplan för förskolan (1998) framskriven innehållsaspekt. Den innehållsaspekt som är i fokus är naturvetenskap. De forskningsfrågor som ställs är: Vad kommuniceras som objekt för lärande i ett naturvetenskapligt sammanhang i förskolan? Vilka akter av lärande framkommer i kommunicerandet av lärandets objekt? Studiens teoretiska referensram utgår från fenomenografi och sociokulturell teori, med särskild förankring i utvecklingspedagogisk forskning. Forskningsprojektet genomfördes på en förskoleavdelning med barn i åldern tre till sex år. Situationer med ett naturvetenskapligt innehåll har dokumenterats med videokamera. Lärarnas ”intended object of learning” var ’Livet i stubben’. Observationerna har skrivits ut i text med fokus på de dialoger som förekom mellan lärare och barn. Materialet har analyserats utifrån lärandets objekt och lärandets akt. Vid en fördjupad analys används tre nivåer av metareflekterande samtal. Denna analys har som syfte att visa i vilken mån det aktuella objektet synliggörs inom de tre nivåerna. Resultatanalysen av lärandets objekt visar på en variation av samtalstema. Resultatanalysen av lärandets akt har synliggjort ’akter som riktning’ och ’akter som uttryckssätt’. Vad som händer med lärandets objekt i förskolan diskuteras i termer av det meningsfulla sammanhanget, betydelsen av att uppfatta sammanhanget och lärarnas goda intentioner med innehållet. Resultaten pekar på att akter som uttryckssätt riskerar att bli ett redskap för innehållets anpassning till rådande omsorgs-, lek- och lärandepraktik. Avslutningsvis problematiseras lärandets objekt i relation till förskolans bildningsideal och framtida vägval för förskolan diskuteras.
  • Ljungquist, Urban, 1969- (författare)
  • Core competence matters : Preparing for a new agenda
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ljungquist, Urban (2007). Core Competence Matters: Preparing for a New Agenda. Acta Wexionensia No. 121/2007. ISSN: 1404-4307, ISBN: 978-91-7636-567-0. Written in English. The core competence concept describes how large companies can prosper and achieve competitive advantage. It is a well-known concept in the strategy domain, frequently practiced in organizations and cited in the literature. Despite this, recent research indicates that in-depth understanding of the concept is scarce. In this thesis, a few shortcomings of the concept are recognized: The vagueness of the original definition, divergence of the existing literature, and invalid appliance. Straightforward core competence identification and verification processes are put forward, applicable to both research and practice. The processes aim at advancing beyond mere identification. Three different core competencies were identified and verified in the empirical part of this thesis. The core competencies were possible to separate through differences in the various influences from competencies, capabilities and resources. The core competencies were also possible to arrange in a complexity continuum, from a compound and highly integrated core competence to a simple and technology-based one, with the third one, a service-based core competence, representing moderate complexity. The two most complex core competencies were, in general, influenced by competencies and capabilities to a larger extent than the simpler core competence. Resources mainly influenced the goods-producing core competencies. The empirical findings of this thesis show that by acknowledging the specifics of the characteristics of competencies, capabilities and resources and their influences, in conceptual and empirical discussions and applications, core competencies can be identified and verified. Furthermore, their influences provide the keys to managing core competencies. A new core competence agenda is proposed. The agenda includes core competence management, which is of particular value to organizations in need of change, for example those facing dynamic business environments, where vital activities and processes – including core competence – must be continually renewed. The agenda is feasible for future core competence research as well, since it alters the research domain, and advocates specificity, convergence and validity.
  • Hall, Johan, 1973- (författare)
  • Transition-Based Natural Language Parsing with Dependency and Constituency Representations
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna doktorsavhandling undersöker olika aspekter av automatisk syntaktisk analys av texter på naturligt språk. En parser eller syntaktisk analysator, som vi definierar den i denna avhandling, har till uppgift att skapa en syntaktisk analys för varje mening i en text på naturligt språk. Vår metod är datadriven, vilket innebär att den bygger på maskininlärning från uppmärkta datamängder av naturligt språk, s.k. korpusar. Vår metod är också dependensbaserad, vilket innebär att parsning är en process som bygger en dependensgraf för varje mening, bestående av binära relationer mellan ord. Dessutom introducerar avhandlingen en ny metod för att koda frasstrukturer, en annan syntaktisk representationsform, som dependensgrafer vilka kan avkodas utan att information i frasstrukturen går förlorad. Denna metod möjliggör att en dependensbaserad parser kan användas för att syntaktiskt analysera frasstrukturer. Avhandlingen är baserad på fem artiklar, varav tre artiklar utforskar olika aspekter av maskininlärning för datadriven dependensparsning och två artiklar undersöker metoden för dependensbaserad frasstrukturparsning. Den första artikeln presenterar vår första storskaliga empiriska studie av parsning av naturligt språk (i detta fall svenska) med dependensrepresentationer. En transitionsbaserad deterministisk parsningsalgoritm skapar en dependensgraf för varje mening genom att härleda en sekvens av transitioner, och minnesbaserad inlärning (MBL) används för att förutsäga transitionssekvensen. Den andra artikeln undersöker ytterligare hur maskininlärning kan användas för att vägleda en transitionsbaserad dependensparser. Den empiriska studien jämför två metoder för maskininlärning med fem särdragsmodeller för tre språk (kinesiska, engelska och svenska), och studien visar att supportvektormaskiner (SVM) med lexikaliserade särdragsmodeller är bättre lämpade än MBL för att vägleda en transitionsbaserad dependensparser. Den tredje artikeln sammanfattar vår erfarenhet av att optimera MaltParser, vår implementation av transitionsbaserad dependensparsning, för ett stort antal språk. MaltParser har använts för att analysera över tjugo olika språk och var bland de främsta systemen i CoNLLs utvärdering 2006 och 2007. Den fjärde artikeln är vår första undersökning av dependensbaserad frastrukturparsning med konkurrenskraftiga resultat för parsning av tyska. Den femte och sista artikeln introducerar en förbättrad algoritm för att transformera frasstrukturer till dependensgrafer och tillbaka, vilket gör det möjligt att parsa kontinuerliga och diskontinuerliga frasstrukturer utökade med grammatiska funktioner.
  • Håkansson, Jan, 1959- (författare)
  • Lärande mellan policy och praktik : Kontextuella villkor för skolans reformarbete
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Håkansson, Jan (2006). Learning between policy and practice. Contextual conditions for reform activity in schools. Acta Wexionensia No 95/2006. ISSN:1404-4307, ISBN: 91-7636-510-7. Written in Swedish with a summary in English. Considerable changes have characterised the past decades’ education policy. These changes apply to all types of schools within the Swedish education system. This thesis treats issues of professional teacher development, the introduction of project work in upper secondary school as well as quality audits in the school system. While intending to problematise and intensify discussions on the school reforms’ significance for school development, the thesis focuses on the conditions for practitioners in-depth reflection and deliberative learning in relation to various development measures in school. The overall purpose is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the relation between policy and practice with respect to school staff’s learning processes, which is constituted in policy and practical contexts examined here. One intention here is to present an analysis of the learning aspects in the explicit development measures formulated in policy documents. Another intention is to analyse learning, which is rather implicitly attached to the implementation of policy. The three reform processes have been studied in a broad socio-theoretical perspective on policy and learning. Yet, inspiration was also provided by a critical action research approach. Discursive and dialectic perspectives on policy, practice and learning are significant for carrying out the empirical studies, but also for the analysis of the empirical material. The study depicts myriad and controversial relations between policy, practice and learning. With respect to professional teacher development projects in partial study A, one outcome is that the policy’s transparent character interplays with creative learning aspects both in policy and practice. Regarding the introduction of project work in upper secondary education, partial study B establishes that the unclear and implicit policy character can be related to preserving learning aspects in the official discourse, yet, it can be creative when applied in practice. The policy on quality audits in the school system as examined in partial study C can be referred to as uncommunicative with an orientation towards preserving learning aspects, while there is possibilities within local evaluation and quality audits for an orientation towards creative learning aspects. On the whole, these reform processes are part of what can be identified as hybrid integration patterns in line with communicative perspectives and perspectives on set objectives. The results in this thesis illustrate a potential for improved participation aided by extended possibilities for communication within the framework of a deliberative perspective on governing schools. It is of great significance to pay attention to this in future reforms. Keywords: communication, critical action research, deliberation, learning, policy, school reform.
  • Olsson, Karin, 1972- (författare)
  • Den (över)levande demokratin : En idékritisk analys av demokratins reproducerbarhet i Robert Dahls tänkta värld
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Olsson, Karin (2009). Den (över)levande demokratin. En idékritisk analys av demokratins reproducerbarhet i Robert Dahls tänkta värld. (Sustainable Democracy. Exploring the Idea of a Reproducible Democracy in the Theory of Robert A. Dahl). Acta Wexionensia 185/2009, ISSN: 1404-4307, ISBN: 978-91-7636-677-6. With a summary in English.   Everybody loves democracy. The problem is that while everybody calls himself democratic, the ideal form of democracy is hard to come by in the real world. But if we believe in democracy and believe that it is the best form of government, I argue that we should try to design a theory of democracy that is realisable – and reproducible. This thesis, then, focuses primarily on the question whether we find support in democratic theory for an idea of a self-reproducing democracy. It proceeds by means of an investigation of Robert A. Dahl’s theory of democracy. He is one of the most well-known and highly regarded theorists in the field of democratic research, whose work covers both normative and empirical analysis. When analysing the reproducible democracy, I argue that it is essential to study both normative values and empirical assumptions: the values that count as intrinsic to democracy, the assumptions that are made about man, and the institutions that are needed for the realisable and reproducible democracy. In modern social science man is often pushed into the background. This is also the case in theories of democracy, even though man (the individual) is the one who has the right to vote, the one who has the autonomy to decide – the one who has to act democratically in order to preserve democracy. The study yields the following findings. First, in Dahl’s theory political equality and autonomy come out as intrinsic values. Second, the assumptions made about man show that even if he seems to be ignored, he is always present. When Dahl construes his theory, he does it with full attention to man’s qualities, interests, manners of acting and reacting, and adaptability to the values of democracy. Third, the institutions needed to realise and reproduce democracy go further than the institutions of polyarchy. They need support from the judicial system, political culture, education and the market. Fourth, when it comes down to making democracy work and reproducing democracy, Dahl puts the full responsibility on man as he is not willing to allow too rigid constitutional mechanisms. Fifth, even though Dahl puts the emphasis on the empirical situation of the real world, he does not alter his normative ideals in order to make the theory more adaptive. For him, political equality and autonomy are imperative demands, too important to alter. And the only way to get full procedural democracy is to trust the democratic man.            
  • Abalo, Ernesto, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Digitalisering och social exklusion : Om medborgares användning av och attityder till Arbetsförmedlingens digitala tjänster
  • 2008
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This research report focuses on the users of e-government in a social science perspective. Our aim is to study how different social groups, registered at the Swedish Public Employment Service, relate to the internet, the agency and the services offered on its website (www.ams.se).The field of e-government research is dominated by studies that centre attention on the supply side (videlicet research investigating the entrance of IT in organizations and the implications that new technology have to these), while usercentred research (demand side) is still scarce. Our study, focusing on how citizens relate to the internet in general and e-government in particular, therefore helps to bridge a knowledge gap within the field.Our survey is based on a questionnaire sent to 2 000 randomly selected persons, all registered at the Swedish Public Employment Service. Of these, 762 job seekers responded, which gives us a frequency rate of 40 percent. The questions asked were related to the job seekers’ usage of and attitudes towards the internet in general and the agency’s webpage in particular, but also to their attitudes to the Swedish Public Employment Service.The main results show that social factors, particularly education, play a major role for the job seekers’ ability to use the web based services offered by the agency. People with a lower educational level are less inclined to use the agency’s website, and at the same time they experience the site as more complicated to use. We also found a strong link between the relations to the internet (access, usage, experience and attitudes) and the relations to the agency’s website. Those with advantaged internet relations – mostly well educated people, white collars and people living in bigger cities – also use the agency’s website more diligently and tend to have more positive attitudes towards it (and vice versa). Thus, its necessary to talk in terms of digitally well equipped and less well equipped groups.The unequal relations to the internet in general and the agency’s website in particular not only indicate that e-government is more suitable for the digitally well equipped, but that it in fact exclude those with less digital resources. This new kind of exclusion has great implications for the job seekers’ possibilities to enter the labour market, and to act their role as citizens. If e government also means a reformation of the citizen role – in the sense of increased individual responsibility towards the government - not bridging the digital divide will carry even more exclusion to those that’s already excluded.
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