SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "L4X0:1650 7339 srt2:(2001-2004)"

Sökning: L4X0:1650 7339 > (2001-2004)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
  • [1]2Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Christensen-Nugues, Charlotte (författare)
  • Och de skall vara ett hjärta : konsensusdoktrinen i medeltida kanonisk rätt
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • One of the most important aspects of the marriage legislation in medieval canon law is the doctrine of free choice. According to this doctrine, established by pope Alexander III in the second half of the twelfth century, the validity of a marriage depended solely on the freely given consent of the parties. Neither family nor witnesses, not even the presence of a priest were necessary to form a valid marriage. The consensualist doctrine revolutionized the very conception of marriage and had important consequences for practically all layers of society. At a first glance, it seems astonishingly modern but a study of the underlying theories shows that it was founded on very different, and apparently, non-modern ideas. That these ideas can seem foreign to us should not lead to an underestimation of their actual importance, even from a modern perspective. They gave rise to one of the most fundamental aspects in the western marriage model – the individuals right to marry if, when, and with whomever he or she chooses. This study focuses on the interaction between sacramental theory and marriage legislation, more specifically, the connection between the ascetic tradition within the Church and the consensualist doctrine. Paradoxically, it was to a large extent the ascetic tradition that prompted a personalistic definition of marriage as depending primarily on the personal feelings and aspirations of the spouses. This idea of marriage was the foundation of the consensualist doctrine. Several authors have argued that the ideal of chastity in the medieval Church was incompatible with the idea of married love. This could seem like a common sense argument but in reality the ideal of chastity was a prerequisite for a more spiritual definition of marriage where the emotional relationship between the spouses was emphasized. As Hugh of Saint-Victor puts it, the spouses should not only become one flesh, but, above all, one heart. At the end of the twelfth century, the consensualist doctrine was firmly established in theory. Another question is if and how it was applied in reality and, not least, how the lay population perceived it. To answer these questions, I have studied a register from the Officials’ Court at Cerisy, Normandy, during the period 1314-1346. The importance of consent appears very clearly in the marriage litigation. Neither the family’s wishes nor the persons’ reputation (if, for example, they had previously been fined for fornication by the same Court) not even if and with whom the involved parties had children seem to have had any real bearing on the Courts rulings in these cases. Another important aspect in the register is the extent of the lay population’s knowledge of canon law, even in its more complicated aspects. The register from Cerisy not only shows how the marriage legislation in canon law was applied by the Court, but also that it had become an integrated part of rural society in fourteenth century Normandy.
  •  
2.
  • Danneskiold-Samsøe, Jakob (författare)
  • Muses and Patrons : Cultures of Natural Philosophy in Seventeenth Century Scandinavia
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study analyses the development of natural philosophy in Scandinavia in the 16th and 17th century. Rather than dealing with individual natural philosophers and ideas, it evolves around groups of natural philsophers - the Bartholin family and the former assistants of Tycho Brahe in Denmark, the Rudbeck family in Sweden. The study of nature is put into a cultural, religious, social, and political context, and much attention is given to the phenomenon of patronage. General developments in the two countries, particularly political, are drawn upon to explain the different conext, national style, and development of natural philosophy in Denmark and Sweden
  •  
3.
  • Flores, Fernando (författare)
  • Från Rudbeck till Mandelbrot : Identifikation, imitation och komparation i nutidsvetenskap
  • 2004
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • InledningDet är kväll den 15:e januari 2004. Idag var det den andra dagen i Mijailovic-rättegången i Stockholms tingsrätt. Mijailovic försvarar sig, men inte genom att svara på frågor. Han representerar det moderna. Hans psykos, säger han, fick honom att få panik, höra röster och döda en utrikesminister. Om han fått träffa en läkare skulle allt varit annorlunda. Sedan början av 1800-talet har detta sätt resonera varit en vanlig, om inte alltid godtagen försvarslinje och förklaringsmodell, i synnerhet när det gäller allvarliga våldsbrott. Foucault visade i sin bok om Pierre Rivière hur experterna redan i början av 1800-talet kunnat sjanghaja någon som inte alls åberopat vanvett, för att ge ett gott exempel för denna försvarsposition. Parallellt med rättegången, men utanför den, utvecklas en talan som helt och hållet stöder Mijailovics position. Kritiken av den "postmoderna” psykiatrin, som förebrås relativism och socialkonstruktivism är hård och skoningslös. En antibiologisk och antiorganisk psykiatrikritik, säger de moderna, leder till charlatanism, nonchalans och ansvarslöshet. Här blir Mijailovic ett exempel. Den dominerande uppfattning som enligt media "totalt dominerar bland experterna" är emellertid en helt annan. Mijailovic är, säger man, trots hans tidigare bevisade aparta och egenartade beteende, absolut inte vansinnig, och har inte heller varit det. Han är rationell och planerande. Han rår för sina handlingar, tänker ut, förföljer och drar slutsatser. Så kommer det onda, detta förmoderna element par préference, in i diskussionen. Det är i detta förvirrade diskussionsklimat jag möter Fernando Flores' nya bok. Författaren har tidigare demonstrerat sin förmåga att leverera en överraskande meta-antropologi. Vad vi nu möter är en ny antro-historia, ett försök att rita upp ett slags tidskarta över positioner i tänkandets utveckling. Det här sker inte genom ett försök att demonstrera kontinuiteter. Snarare är det brott, överraskningar och återtaganden av utvecklingslinjer som står i centrum. Ibland blir hans bok ett Rekordmagasin där tragiska moderna hjältar som Turing och Foucault figurerar med sina uppfinningar och diskursiva bravader, ibland en filosofilexikon, och ibland en originell och kärleksfull diskussion om vad man kan få ut av någon av de tänkare som Flores älskar, som Wittgenstein eller Merleau-Ponty. Som amatörläsare kan man inte annat än förtjusas och förvirras av Fernando Flores' intensiva attack och hans ständiga perspektivbyten. Sune SunessonLund, januari 2004
  •  
4.
  • Flores, Fernando (författare)
  • Mellan åsikt och vittnesbörd : Amerika och Västerlandets arkaiska rötter
  • 2004. - 2
  • Bok (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The question of America’s cultural position in relation to the rest of the world is essential for all research connected to America and to the history of modern Europe. This situation has become obvious over the last years because of our societies’ latest “crisis”, with the consecration of the “post-modern” and “global” view of society, history and culture. The aim of the dissertation is to analyse the relation between an archaic and a modern world view during the fifteen-century. The term “archaic” not viewed as a synonym of “antique”. “Antique” often implies a period of time far from today. I use the term “archaic”, implying a world view, a cosmology, which can be found within any period. Archaic is a way of thinking history; a way of understanding the world and a way of developing identity relations. This interpretation of the relation between the archaic and the modern, lead my argumentation to the conclusion that these different world views must be based on different structures of reason, and that fluctuations between the two structures of reasoning ought to have created a “history of reason”. One of the central conclusions of this thesis is that modernity and archaism develop, disappear and develop again within each act of communication. I also discuss the problem of how the archaic communicates with the modern. How can cultural exchange happen when the cultural conditions are so different? I introduce the idea of cultural influence as a kind of “contagion”. Cultural influence is considered active already at a micro-level via every form of contact. I assume that people can assimilate foreign cultural products even when these products appear in a vague form or unclear presentation. My second assumption is that a culture can assimilate as much as it can give away. I call this assumption the principle of proportional cultural exchange. I found an important starting point in Marcel Mauss’ The Gift and in Lévi-Strauss’ developments of Mauss’ ideas. The work of Lévi-Strauss, includes an illuminating presentation of ideas about delimitation of borders between archaic and modern worldviews. The work of Lévi-Strauss provides an obligatory reference for all studies of the relation between archaic and modern rationality. The one hundred and fifty year old ideas of archaic society of Marx and Engels are then discussed. I especially found the ideas of “communism” and “property” confusing. However, Marx’ study of the “Asiatic production’s system” can yet today illustrate the socio-economical situation of Mexico in the times of the conquest. At the same time, the views of Morgan, Marx and Engels show themselves to be strongly influenced by the traditional mythical ideas about “primitive” societies inherited from Thomas More, Bartolomé de Las Casas, Montaigne, Andreae and Campanella.
  •  
5.
  •  
6.
  • Håkansson, Håkan (författare)
  • Seeing the Word : John Dee and Renaissance Occultism
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study reassesses the occult philosophy of the British polymath John Dee (1527-1609). Focusing on his treatise Monas hieroglyphica (1564) and his notorious angelic conversations in the 1580s, it describes Dee’s philosophical career as a continuous search for a language which could yield knowledge of both nature and God. Situating Dee’s philosophy in the context of early modern “symbolic exegesis”, a group of discursive practices aimed at uncovering the creative principles of God by means of language, the study is an attempt to show how Dee’s seemingly divergent interests were interrelated. In Monas hieroglyphica he treated such disciplines as grammar, biblical exegesis, kabbalah, astronomy, alchemy, and mathematics as grounded on a common foundation, identical to the Word of God. By conceiving a graphical symbol, expressing God’s Word in visual form, Dee believed that he could bring these sciences to perfection. In the later angelic conversations, Dee’s aim was to recover the language spoken by the prelapsarian Adam. The Adamic language was conceived of as representing accurately God’s creative Word, and Dee’s recovery of this tongue would ultimately result in a complete restitution of both religion and knowledge. Dee’s works provide an example of how metaphoric associations between the Word of God, language, nature and the human soul could be exploited in Renaissance occult thought. Such metaphoric associations had an important role in shaping and legitimizing early modern views of symbolism, mysticism, and magic. Relying on Dee’s own sources, many of which still survive with his annotations, this study tries to reconstruct Dee’s search for the perfect language, while simultaneously stressing the syncretistic character of his views.
  •  
7.
  • Libell, Monica (författare)
  • Morality Beyond Humanity : Schopenhauer, Grysanowski, and Schweitzer on Animal Ethics
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The study examines the character and development of the animal ethical ideas of three German thinkers: Arthur Schopenhauer, Ernst Grysanowski, and Albert Schweitzer. By situating them in their cultural and intellectual context, the study explores the differing meanings of their ethical views of animals and seeks to answer the question of how their ideas can be explained historically. It is argued that from the beginning of the 19th century through the 1880s, the animal ethical discourse received heightened attention, a development that was largely due to two parallel bodies of ideas, both emanating out of the Enlightenment project. The early 19th century showed an increasing scientific interest in basic existential matters, such as the physical body, intuition, and instincts. Simultaneously, a social movement arose, which stressed the importance of civilization, education, humane conduct, and social reforms. Towards the close of the century, these two movements merged, while their focus shifted to an interest in the economy and morality of Nature, which increasingly displaced the earlier ideal of civilized society and the overt focus on social reforms. The investigation suggests that these developments shows that the discourse of animal ethics followed a circular rather than linear pattern. The era started with the humanitarian ideals of the Enlightenment and ended in the early decades of the 20th century with the appropriation of social-Darwinist morality.
  •  
8.
  • Pålsson, Carl Magnus (författare)
  • Ombyggnad pågår : Lunds tekniska högskola och ingenjörsrollens förändring
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study deals with the transformation of institutions of higher technical education in Sweden. It situates those processes in the context of educational reforms during the second half of the 20th century. Lund Institute of Technology, Lunds tekniska högskola (LTH), is focused upon. It was founded in 1961 as a major addition to the expanding higher education system. As a newly established institution, LTH took its principal values and ideals from the older polytechnics. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the concepts “the polytechnical ideal” and “engineering science” came into use to denote the content and form of the engineering programs. These standards provided a stable ideological core and a common focus for a homogeneous set of stakeholders. Yet, these standards were challenged as the polytechnics became institutions of mass education and as the political influence over the economy and the norms of higher education increased. During the expansion of the education system, coordination of resources and integration of the institutions received top priority. This line of reasoning was especially significant in the fields of science and engineering. In a radical departure from established organizational form, LTH in 1969 therefore was integrated into Lund University. Previously Swedish polytechnics and universities had evolved in relative separation. From the 1970s onward, polytechnics came under pressure to reform their curricula in order to adjust to the attitudes, knowledge, and proficiency of the students. This process is traced in the development of LTH. The mission of the polytechnics also shifted in other respects, e.g. in terms of their role in regional innovation systems. The objective of the polytechnics within the educational system was modified, as was the position of engineers in society. Subsequently, the engineering profession of today has to be informed by a broader range of societal considerations than half a century ago.
  •  
9.
  • Tunlid, Anna (författare)
  • Ärftlighetsforskningens gränser : Individer och institutioner i framväxten av svensk genetik
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the first part of the 20th century genetics developed into an important research field. The aim of this study is to follow and analyse the transformation of genetics from its origin within an agricultural context to an academic discipline in Sweden (ca. 1900-1960). Mendelism was introduced as a methodology in plant breeding at the plant breeding station in Svalöf during the first decade of the 20th century by Herman Nilsson-Ehle. He was given a personal professorship in genetics at Lund University in 1917, mainly due to his success in improving some economically important crop varieties. This was the first professorship in genetics in Sweden and for long time the only one. During his time as professor, Nilsson-Ehle continued to perform genetic research with close connections to plant breeding. He also founded a strong research school of plant breeders and geneticists interested in more general biological and evolutionary issues. When he retired in 1938, his successor Arne Müntzing decided to break up the close association between plant breeding and genetics and establish genetics as an independent discipline of Lund University. The institutionalization of Swedish genetics can thus be described as a two stage process. In the first stage genetics developed within an agricultural context infused with strong practical interests. This directed the research toward particular problems of great value for society and increased the possibilities for the geneticists to obtain necessary resources. In the second stage the close connection between genetics and plant breeding had to be reconstructed in order to transform genetics into an autonomous academic discpline. In the analysis the concept of boundary-work as introduced by Thomas F. Gieryn is used. As an emerging discipline, genetics was constantly forced to define its territory and border to defend its scientific authority. This was done in different arenas - in the agricultural environment, in the academic system and in society at large - where different characteristics of genetics was emphasized with the overall aim to increase its legitimacy and obtain financial and institutional resources. The transformation of genetics from a practical to a theoretical science supports the idea of a heterogenous scientific landscape in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, where research was performed in many different contexts and with widely varying aims.
  •  
10.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
  • [1]2Nästa
 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy