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  • Pejner, Margaretha Norell, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • The bright side of life : support in municipal elderly home care
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Registered nurses in municipal elderly home care have in some occasionsdifficulties in identifying the patients’ needs and prioritize intervention inaccordance with the patients’ preferences, which is to obtain social and emotional support. The overall aim was to explore and describe which supportive interventions registered nurses use in municipal elderly home care settings and if it is in agreement with the patient’s preferences. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study (I ) were conducted and followed up by a qualitative approach with Grounded Theory as a method (II IV ). Sample to study; I , registered nurses (62) performed interventions to 6138 patients between 80- 109 years. II , 12 registered nurses, who performed 36 home visits to patients between 80- 102 years. III , 16 registered nurses. IV , 18 patients between 80- 96 years. Data was collected by; I , between 2004- 2008, during the months of April and October using a web- based form which was filled in by registered nurses. II , through nonparticipant observations when the registered nurse made a home visit. III and IV , using informal conversational interviews. Results: Combined, the four studies show that emotional support is important to a group of older patients because it helps them to experience serenity. Serenity is a state of relief and the moment required for the patient to be able to move forward in a dignify way. Patients lost or reduced ability to process their emotions makes so that they get stuck in a state, which fatigue them with additional experience of disease and illness. To get out of their state the patient uses the registered nurse as a reliever whose mission is to identify their needs and guide them into a state of serenity. Registered nurses on the other hand, makes priorities based on patients preferences. Registered nurses strengths was their profession that contributed to the patient's emotions became available to them. Weaknesses was registered nurses workload and lack of knowledge about the identification of emotions. Emotional support should be developed as a nursing intervention and be integrated as a part of nursing.
  • Walldén, Jakob, 1968- (författare)
  • The influence of opioids on gastric function : experimental and clinical studies
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Efter operation och anestesi får patienter ofta en negativ påverkan på magsäck och tarmar. Illamående och kräkningar är ett stort problem och många har svårt att komma igång med intag av föda och normal tarmfunktion då magsäcken och tarmarna ”står stilla”. Flera faktorer bidrar- bl.a. smärtan, det kirurgiska traumat och de läkemedel vi ger i samband med anestesin. Av de senare är opioider, d.v.s morfin och morfinliknande läkemedel, starkt bidragande. I detta avhandlings- arbete har opioiders effekter på magsäckens motilitet studerats. Med ett absorptionstest (paracetamolmetoden) studerades hos frivilliga hur opioiden remifentanil påverkar magsäckstömning och om kroppspositionen har betydelse för tömningshastigheten ut i tarmen. Remifentanil fördröjde magsäcks-tömningen och under pågående opioid behandling hade kroppspositionen ingen större betydelse, vilket det däremot hade under kontrollförsöken. Med samma metod jämförde vi hos patienter två anestesimetoder och studerade magsäcks-tömning direkt efter en operation. Ingen skillnad kunde påvisas mellan en opioidbaserad och en opioidfri anestesi, men inom respektive grupp var det en stor variation i magsäckstömning mellan individerna. Med en barostat studerades tonus i övre delen av magsäcken. Hos hälften av de frivilliga orsakade remifentanil en ökning av tonus och hos den andra hälften en minskning av tonus. Vidare undersöktes hos en grupp patienter opioiden fentanyls påverkan på den elektriska aktiviteten i magsäcken. Med en elekroga-strograf (EGG) registrerades de långsamma elektriska vågor som koordinerar muskelrörelserna i magsäcken. Hos hälften av de undersökta påverkades aktiviteten av fentanyl med en sänkt vågfrekvens eller upphörande av vågor, medan aktiviteten var opåverkad hos den övriga hälften. För att finna en förklaring till variationen gjordes genetiska analyser av genen för opioidreceptorn hos de undersökta i barostat och EGG studierna. Variationer i genomet, s.k. polymorfism, var inte associerad till utfallen i studierna. Studierna har visat på att opioider har en uttalad effekt på magsäckens motilitet och att den varierar kraftigt mellan individer. Polymorfism i genen för opioid- receptorn förklarade inte skillnaden mellan individer. Direkt efter operation bidrar sannolikt andra faktorer än anestesimetod till det variabla utfallet i magsäckstömning.
  • Ahl, Rebecka, 1987- (författare)
  • The Association Between Beta-Blockade and Clinical Outcomes in the Context of Surgical and Traumatic Stress
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Traumatic injury and major abdominal surgery are areas in general surgery associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The overall colorectal cancer surgery mortality rate is around 4%, with that for emergency surgery more than twice as high as for planned. Surgical morbidity varies between 25% and 45%. Around half of trauma patients develop low mood. In one quarter of patients this becomes permanent. Depression is known to impede physical rehabilitation and recovery. The onset of physiological stress, driven by adrenergic hyperactivity following traumatic and surgical injury is hypothesized to contribute to these adverse outcomes. Interest has therefore been sparked into blocking adrenergic receptor activation.Papers I and II investigated the role of beta-blocker therapy in preventing post-traumatic depression following severe traumatic brain injury (Paper I) and severe extracranial injury (Paper II). The Karolinska University Hospital Trauma Registry was used to identify patients admitted between 2007 and 2011. In Paper I (n = 545), patients on pre-injury beta-blocker therapy were matched to beta-blocker naïve patients with equivalent injury burden. Results revealed that beta-blocked patients exhibited a 60% reduced risk of needing antidepressant therapy within one year of trauma. In Paper II (n = 596), the lack of beta-blocker use before extracranial trauma was linked to a three-fold increase in the risk of antidepressant initiation.Papers III-V explored the role of pre-operative beta-blocker therapy in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer between 2007 and 2016, identified using the nationwide Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Paper III (n = 3,187) identified a 69% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality in beta-blocked patients. Paper IV (n = 22,337) outlined long-term survival benefits for patients on beta-blocker therapy prior to undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer. Beta-blocked patients showed a risk reduction of 42% for 1-year all-cause mortality and 18% for 5-year cancerspecific mortality. Similarly, patients on beta-blocker therapy who underwent surgery for rectal cancer demonstrated improved survival up to one year after surgery with a risk reduction of 57% and a reduction in anastomotic failure and infectious complications in Paper V (n = 11,966).
  • Ahlsson, Anders, 1962- (författare)
  • Atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in clinical practice. In cardiac surgery, one-third of the patients experience episodes of AF during the first postoperative days (postoperative AF), and patients with preoperative AF (concomitant AF) can be offered ablation procedures in conjunction with surgery, in order to restore ordinary sinus rhythm (SR). The aim of this work was to study the relation between postoperative AF and inflammation; the long-term consequences of postoperative AF on mortality and late arrhythmia; and atrial function after concomitant surgical ablation for AF. In 524 open-heart surgery patients, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations were measured before and on the third day after surgery. There was no correlation between levels of CRP and the development of postoperative AF. All 1,419 patients with no history of AF, undergoing primary aortocoronary bypass surgery (CABG) in the years 1997–2000 were followed up after 8.0 years. The mortality rate was 191 deaths/1,000 patients (19.1%) in patients with no AF and 140 deaths/419 patients (33.4%) in patients with postoperative AF. Postoperative AF was an age-independent risk factor for late mortality, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56 (95% CI 1.23–1.98). Postoperative AF patients had a more than doubled risk of death due to cerebral ischaemia, myocardial infarction, sudden death, and heart failure compared with patients without AF. All 571 consecutive patients undergoing primary CABG during the years 1999–2000 were followed-up after 6 years. Questionnaires were obtained from 91.6% of surviving patients and an electrocardiogram (ECG) from 88.3% of all patients. In postoperative AF patients, 14.1% had AF at follow-up, compared with 2.8% of patients with no AF at surgery (p<.001). An episode of postoperative AF was found to be an independent risk factor for development of late AF, with an adjusted risk ratio (RR) of 3.11 (95% CI 1.41–6.87). Epicardial microwave ablation was performed in 20 open-heart surgery patients with concomitant AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively 14/19 patients (74%) were in SR with no anti-arrhythmic drugs. All patients in SR had preserved left and right atrial filling waves (A-waves) and Tissue velocity echocardiography (TVE) showed preserved atrial wall velocities and atrial strain. In conclusion, postoperative AF is an independent risk factor for late mortality and later development of AF. There is no correlation between the inflammatory marker CRP and postoperative AF. Epicardial microwave ablation of concomitant AF results in SR in the majority of patients and seems to preserve atrial mechanical function.
  • Ahlstrand, Erik, 1974- (författare)
  • Coagulase-negative staphylococci in hematological malignancy
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Bacterial infections are common in hematological malignancy. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the most prevalent causes of bacteremia in patients with hematological malignancies.In this thesis, different aspects of CoNS in hematological malignancy have been studied in four papers:In paper 1, CoNS blood culture isolates from patients with hematological malignancies treated at the University Hospital of Örebro from 1980 to 2009 were revaluated for the presence of reduced sensitivity to glycopeptides. A high incidence of heterogeneous-intermediate glycopeptide resistance was observed and there was a trend towards increasing incidence of this phenotype over time.In paper 2, the colonization pattern of CoNS among patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancy was investigated. A successive homogenization and an accumulation of CoNS phenotypes mutually present in a majority of included patients were demonstrated.In paper 3, a PCR method to determine the clinical significance of positive blood cultures of the CoNS species Staphylococcus epidermidis was evaluated. The test failed to discriminate bloodstream infection from blood culture contamination.Finally, in paper 4, the long-term molecular epidemiology of S. epidermidis blood culture isolates from patients with hematological malignancies was studied with multilocus sequence typing. A predominance of sequence type 2 was demonstrated during the entire 30 year study period.In conclusion, the results are consistent with that CoNS have established as important pathogens by its capacity to colonize the human skin, its ability to reside and spread in the hospital environment and its rapid adaptation to stressors such as antimicrobials.
  • Ahlstrand, Rebecca, 1973- (författare)
  • Effects of anasthesia on esophageal sphincters
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The esophageal sphincters constitute the anatomical protection against pulmonary aspiration. The aim of this thesis was to study the esophageal sphincters and how they are affected by different components of emergency anesthesia using high-resolution solid-state manometry.The effect of propofol (0.3 mg/kg) was studied in young and elderly volunteers. Propofol can be given as an anxiolytic agent for manometric studies of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) without affecting the results. However, propofol is not recommended for studies of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES).The effects of cricoid pressure (CP) and peripheral pain were studied in awake volunteers, with and without remifentanil infusion (5 ng/ml). Pain did not affect pressure in the LES, but CP or remifentanil induced a significant decrease in LES pressure. However, neither CP nor remifentanil affected the barrier pressure (LES-intra gastric pressure). When CP was applied during ongoing remifentanil infusion, no further decrease in LES pressure was measured. CP induced high pressures in the area of the UES independent of remifentanil infusion, indicating that CP is effective in preventing gastroesophageal regurgitation.Barrier pressure was also studied in anesthetized patients after rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) administration and no decrease was measured. In addition, alfentanil (20 μ/kg) added during anesthesia induction with propofol did not decrease the barrier pressure.In conclusion, CP seems to be effective in preventing regurgitation and does not affect barrier pressure. Muscle relaxation with rocuronium does not risk gastro-esophageal integrity. In addition, opioids can be integrated, even during emergency anethesia, without increasing the risk for pulmonary aspiration.
  • Allbrand, Marianne, 1958- (författare)
  • Gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in placenta in relation to maternal obesity and foetal and postnatal growth
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Maternal obesity is a growing health problem, that contributes to obstetrical complications in pregnancy, as well as neonatal morbidity and mortality. The placenta serves for gas and nutrient exchange between the mother and the foetus, and obesity may influence and modify placental growth and function. The aims of this thesis were to investigate associations between maternal obesity without associated morbidity and gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in the placenta, as well as offspring birth weight and postnatal growth. Study I and III were designed as matched case-control studies including 32 obese women with an early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35.0 kg/m2, study II was an experimental study examining twelve placentas of normal weight women, and study IV was a cohort study including 109 obese women with a BMI ≥ 34.5 kg/m2. In studies I-IV analyses of gene expression were performed and in study III additionally cord blood concentrations were determined. No difference was found in the occurrence of placental gene expression of inflammatory markers or growth factors between obese and normal weight women, nor did the sampling site in placentas of normal weight women influence gene expression of these markers, except for leptin gene (LEP) and insulin receptor gene (INSR) expression. Ghrelin gene (GHRL) and LEP expression, as well as cord blood ghrelin and adiponectin levels, was not altered in maternal obesity, and a negatively U-shaped relationship between LEP expression and infant birth weight (BW) z-scores was observed in the placentas of obese women.In conclusion, no statistically significant difference in gene expressions of inflammatory markers and growth factors in the placenta between severely obese and normal weight women was found. These results are in contrast with earlier studies and could be due to the fact that we examined mainly healthy obese women. The correlations we found between gene expression of leptin in the placenta and the birth weight of the infants warrants further studies.
  • Allvin, Renée, 1956- (författare)
  • Postoperative recovery : development of a multi-dimensional questionnaire for assessment of Recovery
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis aims to present a multi-dimensional instrument for self-assessment of progress in postoperative recovery. The author employs different research paradigms and methodologies to achieve this aim. Walker and Avant’s approach to concept analysis was used to examine the basic elements of postoperative recovery (Study I). The analysis identified different recovery dimensions and developed a theoretical definition showing postoperative recovery to be an energy-requiring process of returning to normality and wholeness, defined by comparative standards. Fourteen patients and 28 staff members participated in individual and focus group interviews aimed at describing patient and staff experiences of patient recovery (Study II). The essence of the postoperative recovery process was described as a desire to decrease unpleasant physical symptoms, reach a level of emotional wellbeing, regain functions, and re-establish activities. In Study III, 5 dimensions and 19 items were identified as a part of the operationalization process of the concept postoperative recovery. Fifteen staff members and 16 patients participated in the evaluation of content validity. On average, 85% of the participants considered the items as essential to the recovery process. In a test run of the questionnaire, 14 of 15 patients considered the questionnaire to be easy to understand and easy to complete. Twenty-five patients participated in the evaluation of intra-patient reliability. Percentage agreement (PA), systematic disagreement (RP, RC), and individual variability (RV) between the two assessments were calculated. PA measures ranged from 72% to 100%. The observed disagreement could be explained mainly by systematic disagreement. In total, 158 patients participated in the evaluation of construct validity, the ability to discriminate between groups, and the investigation of important item variables (Study IV). A rank-based statistical method for evaluation of paired, ordered categorical data from rating scales was used to evaluate consistency between the assessments of the Postoperative Recovery Profile (PRP) questionnaire and a global recovery scale. The number of months needed by participants to be regarded as fully recovered was studied by means of recovery profiles displayed by the cumulative proportion of recovered participants over time. A ranking list based on the participant’s appraisal of the five most important item variables in the PRP questionnaire was compiled to illustrate the rank ordering of the items. In comparing the assessments from the PRP questionnaire and the global recovery scale, 7.6% of all possible pairs were disordered. Twelve months after discharge 73% in the orthopaedic group were regarded as fully recovered, compared to 51% of the participants in the abdominal group (95% CI: 6% to 40%). The pain variable appeared among the top five most important items on eight measurement occasions, of eight possible, in both study groups. In conclusion, the PRP questionnaire was developed and support was given for validity and reliability. The questionnaire enables one to evaluate progress in postoperative recovery.
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