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1.
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2.
  • Andersson, Hans (författare)
  • Torp och backstugor i Länghem : en studie av bebyggelsens förändringar från 1600-talet till början av 1900-talet.
  • 2007
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The paper is based on an inventory of crofts and cottages that was made in the parish of Länghem in the southern part of the province of Västergötland, Sweden at the end of the 1950ies and the beginning of the 1960ies. The parish of Länghem has both manors (the medieval Torpa and Hofsnäs and the 17th century Sällerås) and independent villages. The inventory was made quite traditionally. We tried to identify the locations of the crofts and cottages. We traced their history where it was possible and made a commented register of them. Besides the field material we used parish registration books of different kinds (sw. husförhörslängder, födelseand dödböcker) as source material. It was possible to get a rather good picture of the 19th century settlement in this way. For older periods the material was later supplemented with other kinds of source material, above all taxation assessment rolls (Sw. mantalslängder), which in this case go back as far as the 17th century. An official national report on the croft settlements made in 1911 is among other things based on parish statements, which have been of great value for our study. Some central questions among others in the paper concern how these kinds of settlements are spread over the surface of the parish chronologically and which spatial variations there are within the parish. The study covers the period from the 17th century to the beginning of 20th century. This 49 was a period involving many political, social, economic and demographical changes. Through the enclosures that occurred mainly in the 19th century the spatial structure of the countryside was entirely reshaped. Which consequences did this changing structure of the landscape have for the crofts? Did some of the croft settlements have their roots in older farm sites, that have been deserted farms, or through transformation of a taxed farm into a croft? How the picture of the development of the non-freehold settlements fits in with the general settlement patterns is another question to discuss. The study is presented mainly in a series of maps, which begins in the year 1695. The result is that the general picture, which one can find from other parts of the country, can also be seen in Länghem, even if there are differences, especially if you study the situation on the village level. In my paper I assume that there are different villages, which have different strategies.
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3.
  • Bentz, Emma (författare)
  • I stadens skugga : den medeltida landsbygden som arkeologiskt forskningsfält
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis focus is on two aims: 1) to investigate the emergence and establishment of medieval rural archaeology as an archaeological field of study, from the 1930’s up until today and 2) based on the results made in this study, to discuss generally how new subject areas are incorporated and maintained within the humanities. Thus, the scope of the thesis does not lie on the medieval period with its rural settlements and their inhabitants, but rather on their archaeological historiography during the 20th and 21st centuries. Sweden (Fosie) serves as a point of departure and together with examples from Germany (Hohenrode), Denmark (Store Valby) and Great Britain (Wharram Percy) the over decades changing practices and approaches are discussed and analyzed. Three conditions namely the technical, disciplinary and ideological constitute the theoretical foundations for the present study. In short, the technical conditions primarily relate to the fieldwork and the process of excavation at different times. The disciplinary conditions are defined as the study of those variables within the scientific sphere, and their internal relationship that have contributed to the formation of the field of medieval rural archaeology and its continued existence. In order to study these aspects the concept of boundary work has served as an inspiration. The ideological conditions focus on the interaction between archaeology and society, in my study mainly represented by discussions on the status of the medieval village in legislation. Based on theoretical discussions and analyses made in the empirical studies, it is argued that the emergence, establishment and upcoming changes of medieval rural archaeology as a field of study are best distinguished by identifying different promoting and constraining factors. These conclusions are followed by discussing how best characterize and describe different subject areas. Based on observations made, the metaphor of a web consisting out of different spatial and temporal levels and nodes is proposed. This model serves as a complement to a more traditional chronological scheme and, thus, it contributes to a more complete and deeper understanding of the structure of scientific fields. The argument is also that the models application is versatile to other disciplines.
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4.
  • Bergqvist, Johanna (författare)
  • Läkare och läkande : läkekonstens professionalisering i Sverige under medeltid och renässans
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis examines the arts of healing in the area of present-day Sweden dur¬ing the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (ca. 1100–1600 AD). It focuses on secular arts of healing for the body, rather than magical and religious healing or the cure of the soul. It is done by studying material culture in the form of archaeological finds from Southern Sweden and contemporary written sources from the Nordic region. The ques¬tions asked can be grouped in three main themes: Perceptions of disease, affliction and injury, Practitioners of the arts of healing and Arts of healing. I examine the underlying understandings or perceptions of disease as well as attitudes towards disease as such and towards the afflicted individuals. Old Norse names and designations in the first half of the Middle Ages seem to reflect what I call a cause- and consequence-oriented understand¬ing of disease. Latin and to some extent Old Norse names and designations from the second half of the Middle Ages can rather be characterized as reflecting a symptom- and sign-oriented understanding. I interpret this as a change, with a new understanding of disease spreading during this time. The medieval and Renaissance arts of healing in the Swedish region were to a large extent a craft: a knowledge of the hand and the senses. Within this craft an incipient professionalization is discernible already in the first half of the Middle Ages, but it seems to have been interrupted by the Black Death and partly inhibited by a series of recurring epidemics in the fifteenth century. At the same time a new wave of professionalization started, which eventually led towards a segmentation of the occupation of læknir into barber surgeons, apothecaries and doctors and the for¬malization of the new occupations in the course of the sixteenth century, with the for¬mation of new occupational ethoses. This is reflected in the more specialized material culture of instruments and vessels. The picture emerging of the treatments provided is that of a heterogeneous phenomenon, varying between milieus and over time. There were several different arts of healing or medical cultures. The easiest to discern are the secular as opposed to the monastic arts of healing, but to draw sharp lines between the two might give an impression of two homogeneous phenomena, which they were not. The secular art of healing seems to have been empirical to a high degree and remarkably unaffected by the monastic art of healing, whose medical material culture hardly spread extra claustrum. Phlebotomy, for example, seems to have had different motivations in the two sociocultural contexts. It seems as if the Black Death and the epidemics that followed had devastating consequences in the form of lost knowledge within the occu¬pation of the læknir and for the ongoing process of professionalization. This necessitated a reorientation and a compensation for lost skills with new ideas. This was sought in the medical literature and the tradition or medical culture it reflected, which up until then had not played any great role.
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5.
  • Carlsson, Kristina (författare)
  • Var går gränsen? : arkeologiska uttryck för religiösa och politiska aktörer i nuvarande Västsverige under perioden 1000-1300
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The early Middle Ages saw the formation of the three Nordic kingdoms of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and at that time the area studied here constituted a border region between them. During the same period the Church was very active in the area: a bishopric was established and a large number of churches were built. This makes the area a particularly interesting one to study from the point of view of physical manifestations of political and religious power ambitions. The starting point for the discussion is in the differences that have been noted between the materials from the western and those from the eastern parts of the study area, differences that are chiefly to be detected during the earlier part of the period. Archaeological materials from the early medieval towns of Skara, Lödöse and Kungahälla, together with archaeological and building remains from more than 500 medieval central church sites, are described. The methodological basis lies in the ideas of Braudel and the Annales movement, a broadly cultural approach which has been further developed in critical archaeology, the roots of which are close to those of post processual archaeology and the discussion of the symbolic values of the materials. The analysis is based on observations of local change processes identified in individual materials which can be linked to different power holders, focusing on both them and those over whom power is exercised, mainly in religious groupings and political ones. This is also facilitated by some fundamental discussion of questions concerning the dating of the materials concerned. Church activities tended to determine the course of events in the eastern parts of the province, while the political power holders seem to have held sway in the west. In the thirteenth century, when the church appears established, it is possible to detect a greater similarity in the materials, something that may also be seen in other Scandinavian materials. Activities in Skara and its immediate surroundings declined at that time, whereas Lödöse continued to grow vigorously. In the early fourteenth century there is a further restructuring, when political activities tend to centre on the new strongholds rather than on the towns as previously. There is much to support the view that this was also the time when the territorial divisions of Scandinavia took shape, and when the political structure changed in the direction of stronger central control. At that time society was also moving in the direction of a more distinct market economy, to some extent characterized by greater export and import activity.
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7.
  • Hansson, Martin (författare)
  • Aristocratic Landscape : The Spatial ideology of the Medieval Aristocracy
  • 2006
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the book is to be a comparative study of how the aristocracy in Western Europe organised space and landscape, especially inside and adjacent to their residences. This comparison will involve examples from Britain, France, Germany and Scandinavia and is concentrated to the period c. 800-1500. The overall aim is to search after a common aristocratic spatial ideology and to explain its meaning and changes through time against the background of overall changes in medieval society. Many scholars have studied the medieval aristocracy and the chivalrous culture, but the present study is the first that tries to connect this culture with the landscape. The word “aristocracy” is used in its widest sense, since it is meant to include the whole nobility, from the mightiest magnates to the poorest village knights. It is also one of the main aims of the study to analyse not just persons and places belonging to the upper nobility, which normally is the case in studies of aristocratic culture, but to extend the study and also include the landscape and places of the lesser nobility. The book is written from archaeological starting points and uses a variety of materials, but focuses on the material record. An important feature of the book is that the residences of the aristocracy are studied in the context of their surrounding landscape. The location of the residence in relation to contemporary settlements is studied, as well as the layout, “content” and architectural display of the residence in question.
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8.
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9.
  • Lihammer, Anna (författare)
  • Bortom riksbildningen : människor, landskap och makt i sydöstra Skandinavien
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The formation of the kingdom of Denmark is generally presented as a linear process linking ancient chiefs to the modern nation state of Denmark. This dissertation focuses on the small stories behind this great narrative of Denmark. The purpose is to show that there never was any formation process. Instead, encounters between people in the local landscapes and the Danish kingdom were both considerably later and more complex. It is argued that present research concerning the formation of Denmark is divided into three main categories: 1. The formation of the Danish kingdom is regarded as a lengthy process beginning in the early Iron Age, 2. The focus is on the idea of a Danish kingdom in the 8th century manifested in a number of monuments, 3. The formation of the Danish kingdom is considered a Viking Age phenomenon linked to the Jelling dynasty of kings. Seven major problems are identified in this research, especially evident in the first category: 1. The impact of nationalism. 2. Ethnicity and ethnogenesis. 3. The focus on elites. 4. The focus on men. 5. The term central place. 6. The terms chief and king. 7. The terms kingdom and state. The dissertation builds on a perspective of landscape archaeology. Landscape can primarily be understood as a socially constructed context. Neither the cultural nor the natural aspect is enough on its own. Monuments of power can be apprehended as claims rather than proofs of power. The effects of such claims depended on the reactions of the people who encountered them. The terms co-power and counter-power are used to describe these reactions analytically. The concepts of a perspective from within and a perspective from without are used to analyse different people's relations to the local landscapes. Four areas are investigated: eastern Blekinge, the plain around Lund, the valley of the Ätran and Bornholm. The dissertation arrives at the following conclusions: 1. People in the areas east of Öresund met the Danish kingdom in different ways and considerably later than what is often assumed. 2. There are no processes, only actors and clusters of actions and events. 3. Events must be studied in the perspective of the actor. 4. We must change our vantage points and consider different perspectives and historical narratives. 5. There are no process of formation of kingdoms.
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10.
  • Medeltiden och arkeologin : mer än sex decennier
  • 2011
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A collection of papers from the celebration of professor emeritus Erik Cinthio's 90th birthday in february 2011. Cinthio established the subject medieval archaeology and four articles concerns his main fields of interest - the subject of medieval archaeology, now transformed to historical archaeology, church archaeology, urban archaeology and agrarian archaeology. The book also includes an introduction and a bibliography covering Cinthos publications 1946-2011.
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