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  • Al-Olama, Mohamed, et al. (författare)
  • Uptake of the antisecretory factor peptide AF-16 in rat blood and cerebrospinal fluid and effects on elevated intracranial pressure
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268. ; 157:1, s. 129-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AF-16 is a 16-amino-acid-long peptide derived from the amino-terminal part of the endogenous protein, antisecretory factor (AF). AF-16 in vivo has been shown to regulate dysfunctions in the water and ion transport system under various pathological conditions and also to counteract experimentally increased tissue pressure. Rats were subjected to a cryogenic brain injury in order to increase the intracranial pressure (ICP). The distribution of AF-16 in blood and CSF after intravenous or intranasal administration was determined in injured and control rats. ICP was monitored in freely moving, awake rats, by means of an epidural pressure transducer catheter connected to a wireless device placed subcutaneously on the skull. The continuous ICP registrations were achieved by means of telemetry. Intranasal administration of AF-16 resulted in a significantly higher CSF concentrations of AF-16 in injured than in control rats, 1.3 versus 0.6 ng/ml, whereas no difference between injured and control rats was seen when AF-16 was given intravenously. Rats subjected to cryogenic brain injury developed gradually increasing ICP levels. Intranasal administration of AF-16 suppressed the increased ICP to normal values within 30 min. Optimal AF-16 concentrations in CSF are achieved after intranasal administration in rats subjected to a cryogenic brain injury. The ability of AF-16 to suppress an increased ICP was manifested.
  • Almotairi, Fawaz, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid disturbance in overweight women after occipitocervical decompression in Chiari malformation type I
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268. ; 158:3, s. 589-594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid disturbance (CSFD) is a well-known complication after occipitocervical decompression (OCD) in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CMI). There is scarce data focusing on preoperative patients' factors predisposing to development of CSF disturbance. The aim of this study is to evaluate a prognostic value of some patients' factors in the prediction of CSFD after OCD in CMI patients. We undertook a 10-year (2003-2013) retrospective study of all OCD in patients with CMI performed at Sahlgrenska IC, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. A total of 52 consecutive patients were obtained from the operation database and we excluded one patient who was previously diagnosed with normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Data regarding preoperative age, body mass index, gender, degree of tonsillar herniation and syrinx were registered. Development of CSFD after OCD was noted. Of the 51 patients reviewed, six had CSFD after OCD and were managed using a form of CSF diversion procedure. All of the patients who developed CSFD were females. They had a mean body mass index of 32.3 compared to a mean of 24.3 in patients without CSFD (p = 0.0011). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the other examined patient factors. CSF diversion was needed in six consecutive adult Chiari malformation type I patients who underwent occipitocervical decompression. All patients with postoperative CSFD were female and their mean BMI was significantly higher than patients without this complication.
  • Almotairi, Fawaz, et al. (författare)
  • Chiari I malformation—neuropsychological functions and quality of life
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the neuropsychological (NP) functioning and quality of life (QOL) before and 3 months after surgery on adults with Chiari I malformation (CMI). Patients and methods: All adult patients who had been diagnosed with CMI were invited to participate. Those who participated were assessed using a Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) and NP examinations. Their QOL was assessed using the self-reported life satisfaction checklist, LiSat-11 and the five-dimensional EuroQol measurement of health outcome, EQ-5D-5L. All assessments were carried out both before and 3 months after surgery was performed. Demographic data and comorbidities were also registered. Results: Of the 11 patients who underwent NP assessment, the majority demonstrated cognitive functioning within the normal range. However, postoperatively, their performance in verbal learning, psychomotor speed, colour naming speed and the ability to manage interference through response selection and inhibition (aspects of executive functioning) was significantly improved. Thirteen patients completed QOL assessments. When LiSat-11 item domains were compared with those of healthy subjects, patients reported a lower level of satisfaction with their life quality both before and after surgery. However, the EQ-5D-5L measurements, i.e., the descriptive system and the visual analogue, indicated that their QOL of life was significantly improved after surgery. Conclusion: There is scarcely any literature documenting effects of surgery on the QOL of CMI patients. The study we present here breaks new ground by comparing pre- and postoperative NP functions in CMI. We also examine the value of surgery for improving both NP functions and QOL in CMI. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.
  • Bartek, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in spontaneous brain abscess patients: a population-based comparative cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268. ; 158:7, s. 1259-1267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a need to improve outcome in patients with brain abscesses and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a promising treatment modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate HBOT in the treatment of intracranial abscesses. This population-based, comparative cohort study included 40 consecutive adult patients with spontaneous brain abscess treated surgically between January 2003 and May 2014 at our institution. Twenty patients received standard therapy with surgery and antibiotics (non-HBOT group), while the remaining 20 patients also received adjuvant HBOT (HBOT group). Resolution of brain abscesses and infection was seen in all patients. Two patients had reoperations after HBOT initiation (10 %), while nine patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group underwent reoperations (p = 0.03). Of the 26 patients who did not receive HBOT after the first surgery, 15 (58 %) had one or several recurrences that lead to a new treatment: surgery (n = 11), surgery + HBO (n = 5) or just HBO (n = 1). In contrast, recurrences occurred in only 2 of 14 (14 %) who did receive HBOT after the first surgery (p < 0.01). A good outcome (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS] of 5) was achieved in 16 patients (80 %) in the HBOT cohort versus 9 patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group (p = 0.04). HBOT was associated with less treatment failures and need for reoperation and seemingly with improved long-term outcome. Further, HBOT was well tolerated and safe. Prospective studies are warranted to establish the role of HBOT in the treatment of brain abscesses.
  • Bartek jr, Jiri, et al. (författare)
  • Standardized reporting of adverse events after microvascular decompression of cranial nerves; a population-based single-institution consecutive series.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268. ; 158:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate frequencies of adverse events occurring within 30 days after microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery using a standardized report form of adverse events. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 98 adult patients (≥16 years) treated with MVD between 1 January 1994 and 1 June 2013. Adverse events occurring within 30 days were classified according to the Landriel Ibanez classification for neurosurgical complications: grade I represents any non-life threatening complication treated without invasive procedures; grade II is complications requiring invasive management; grade III is life-threatening adverse events requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU); grade IV is death as a result of complications. We sought to compare our results with reports from the literature. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 61 years (range 26-83), and 64 (65 %) were females. Indications for MVD were trigeminal neuralgia (n = 77, 79 %), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (n = 4, 4 %), hemifacial spasm (n = 16, 16 %) and combined trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm (n = 1, 1 %). The overall 30-day complication rate was 20 %, with 14 % grade I complications, 5 % grade II complications and 1 % grade III complications. The comparison with the literature was hampered by the diverse and unsystematic way of reporting complications. CONCLUSION: We provide a standardized report of postoperative complications in a consecutive patient series undergoing MVD. Due to the heterogeneous and non-standardized reporting of complications in the literature, it is difficult to know if our 20 % complication rate is low or high. Standardized reporting is a necessity for meaningful and more valid comparisons across studies. The safety of MVD, a fairly standardized neurosurgical procedure, is well suited for comparisons across centers provided that complications are reported in a standardized manner
  • Bengzon, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • C-reactive protein levels following standard neurosurgical procedures
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - Springer. - 0001-6268. ; 145:8, s. 667-671
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The aim of the present study was to establish the magnitude and time-course of C-reactive protein increases following routine neurosurgical procedures in the absence of clinical and laboratory signs of infection. Method. C-reactive protein levels were studied daily following ventriculo-peritoneal shunt implantation, anterior cervical fusion, vestibular schwannoma operation, supratentorial glioma surgery, endovascular intracranial aneurysm treatment and open cerebral aneurysm surgery. Findings. The magnitude of the C-reactive protein increase depended on the extent of surgical trauma and peak-levels were recorded between postoperative day one and four after which the levels tapered off. Interpretation. Increases occur-ring after the fourth postoperative day are likely to be caused by complications of surgery, e.g. infection.
  • Blomstedt, Patric, et al. (författare)
  • Deep brain stimulation of the posterior subthalamic area in the treatment of tremor
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268 .- 0942-0940. ; 151:1, s. 31-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Several studies have described lesional therapy in the posterior subthalamic area (PSA) in the treatment of various movement disorders. Recently, some publications have illustrated the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in this area in patients with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, MS-tremor, and other forms of tremor. Even though the clinical series is small, the reported benefits prompted us to explore DBS in this area in the treatment of tremor.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong> Five patients with tremor were operated using unilateral DBS of the PSA. Two patients had dystonic tremor, one primary writing tremor, one cerebellar tremor and the other neuropathic tremor. All patients were assessed before and 1 year after surgery using items 5 and 6 (tremor of the upper extremity), 11-14 (hand function), and when appropriate item 10 (handwriting) from the essential tremor rating scale.</p> <p><strong>FINDINGS:</strong> The mean improvement on stimulation after 1 year was 87%. A pronounced and sustained microlesional effect was seen in several of the patients, and while the mean improvement off stimulation was 56% the reduction in the three patients with the most pronounced effect was 89%. The two patients with dystonic tremor did also become free of the dystonic symptoms and pain in the treated arm. No severe complication occurred.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> DBS of the PSA in this small group of patients had an excellent effect on the different forms of tremor, except for the neuropathic tremor where the effect was moderate. These preliminary results suggest PSA to be an effective target for the treatment of various forms of tremor. Further studies concerning indications, safety and efficacy of DBS in the posterior subthalamic area are required.</p>
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