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1.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 107:4, s. 607-616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. Objective We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers. Design A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. Results The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.
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2.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 107:4, s. 607-616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers. A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively. Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.</p>
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  • Akner, Gunnar, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of protein-energy malnutrition in chronic nonmalignant disorders
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 74:1, s. 6-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is common in connection with chronic disease and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because the risk of PEM is related to the degree of illness, the causal connections between malnutrition and a poorer prognosis are complex. It cannot automatically be inferred that nutritional support will improve the clinical course of patients with wasting disorders. We reviewed studies of the treatment of PEM in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, stroke, dementia, rehabilitation after hip fracture, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple disorders in the elderly. Several methodologic problems are associated with nutrition treatment studies in chronically ill patients. These problems include no generally accepted definition of PEM, uncertain patient compliance with supplementation, and a wide range of outcome variables. Avail-able treatment studies indicate that dietary supplements, either alone or in combination with hormonal treatment, may have positive effects when given to patients with manifest PEM or to patients at risk of developing PEM. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutritional treatment may improve respiratory function. Nutritional therapy of elderly women after hip fractures may speed up the rehabilitation process. When administered to elderly patients with multiple disorders, diet therapy may improve functional capacity. The data regarding nutritional treatment of the conditions mentioned above is still inconclusive. There is still a great need for randomized controlled long-term studies of the effects of defined nutritional intervention programs in chronically ill and frail elderly with a focus on determining clinically relevant outcomes.</p>
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  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 102:6, s. 1498-1508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having &gt;= 4 cups (600mL) coffee/d compared with &lt;2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which-in combination-attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury.</p>
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  • Ambring, Anneli, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean-inspired diet lowers the ratio of serum phospholipid n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, the number of leukocytes and platelets, and vascular endothelial growth factor in healthy subjects.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 83:3, s. 575-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Reduced cardiovascular mortality and morbidity have been shown in persons adhering to Mediterranean-inspired diets (MIDs). Although the underlying mechanisms of this association are poorly understood, the importance of increasing dietary amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 series has been emphasized. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a MID provided to healthy subjects would affect 1) the inflammatory process and endothelial indexes such as vasoregulation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and 2) serum phospholipid fatty acid composition. DESIGN: A total of 22 subjects (10 women) received a MID or an ordinary Swedish diet (OSD) for 4 wk in a crossover fashion. Concentrations of lipids and fatty acids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6, both before and after lipopolysaccharide stimulation; the number of leukocytes and platelets; and VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 were analyzed. RESULTS: The plasma ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was substantially lower after the MID than after the OSD (x +/- SEM: 4.72 +/- 0.19 and 2.60 +/- 0.17, respectively; P < 0.0001). Neither C-reactive protein nor interleukin 6 concentrations changed significantly after the MID compared with the OSD. The total number of leukocytes and platelets was 10% (P < 0.05) and 15% (P < 0.001) lower, respectively, after the MID than after the OSD. Serum VEGF concentrations were lower after the MID than after the OSD (237 +/- 30 and 206 +/- 25 pg/mL, respectively; P = 0.0014). CONCLUSIONS: A MID reduces the number of platelets and leukocytes and VEGF concentrations in healthy subjects. This may be linked to higher serum concentrations of n-3 fatty acids, which promote a favorable composition of phospholipids.
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