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1.
  • Roberson-Nay, Roxann, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Stability of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Irritability: From Childhood to Young Adulthood.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Little is known about genetic influences on juvenile irritability and whether such influences are developmentally stable and/or dynamic. This study examined the temporal pattern of genetic and environmental effects on irritability using data from a prospective, four-wave longitudinal twin study. METHOD: Parents and their twin children (N=2,620 children) from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development reported on the children's irritability, defined using a previously identified scale from the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Genetic effects differed across the sexes, with males exhibiting increasing heritability from early childhood through young adulthood and females exhibiting decreasing heritability. Genetic innovation was also more prominent in males than in females, with new genetic risk factors affecting irritability in early and late adolescence for males. Shared environment was not a primary influence on irritability for males or females. Unique, nonshared environmental factors suggested strong effects early for males followed by an attenuating influence, whereas unique environmental factors were relatively stable for females. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic effects on irritability are developmentally dynamic from middle childhood through young adulthood, with males and females displaying differing patterns. As males age, genetic influences on irritability increase while nonshared environmental influences weaken. Genetic contributions are quite strong in females early in life but decline in importance with age. In girls, nonshared environmental influences are fairly stable throughout development.
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2.
  • Viktorin, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Heritability of Perinatal Depression and Genetic Overlap With Nonperinatal Depression.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1535-7228. ; 173:2, s. 158-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on perinatal depression, and the genetic overlap between perinatal depression and nonperinatal depression.
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3.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The American Journal of Psychiatry. - : American Psychiatric Association. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 163:7, s. 1239-1244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The authors describe personality development and disorders in relation to symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders. METHOD: Consecutive adults referred for neuropsychiatric investigation (N=240) were assessed for current and lifetime ADHD and autism spectrum disorders and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. In a subgroup of subjects (N=174), presence of axis II personality disorders was also assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). RESULTS: Patients with ADHD reported high novelty seeking and high harm avoidance. Patients with autism spectrum disorders reported low novelty seeking, low reward dependence, and high harm avoidance. Character scores (self-directedness and cooperativeness) were extremely low among subjects with neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating a high overall prevalence of personality disorders, which was confirmed with the SCID-II. Cluster B personality disorders were more common in subjects with ADHD, while cluster A and C disorders were more common in those with autism spectrum disorders. The overlap between DSM-IV personality disorder categories was high, and they seem less clinically useful in this context. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD and autism spectrum disorders are associated with specific temperament configurations and an increased risk of personality disorders and deficits in character maturation.
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4.
  • Araya, Ricardo, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of a primary care treatment program for depression in low-income women in Santiago, Chile.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 163:8, s. 1379-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care, multicomponent program with usual care for the treatment of depressed women in primary care in Santiago, Chile.METHOD: A cost-effectiveness study was conducted of a previous randomized controlled trial involving 240 eligible women with DSM-IV major depression who were selected from a consecutive sample of adult women attending primary care clinics. The patients were randomly allocated to usual care or a multicomponent stepped-care program led by a nonmedical health care worker. Depression-free days and health care costs derived from local sources were assessed after 3 and 6 months. A health service perspective was used in the economic analysis.RESULTS: Complete data were determined for 80% of the randomly assigned patients. After we adjusted for initial severity, women receiving the stepped-care program had a mean of 50 additional depression-free days over 6 months relative to patients allocated to usual care. The stepped-care program was marginally more expensive than usual care (an extra 216 Chilean pesos per depression-free day). There was a 90% probability that the incremental cost of obtaining an extra depression-free day with the intervention would not exceed 300 pesos (1.04 US dollars).CONCLUSIONS: The stepped-care program was significantly more effective and marginally more expensive than usual care for the treatment of depressed women in primary care. Small investments to improve depression appear to yield larger gains in poorer environments. Simple and inexpensive treatment programs tested in developing countries might provide good study models for developed countries.
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5.
  • Borg, Jacqueline, et al. (författare)
  • The serotonin system and spiritual experiences
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - : American Psychiatric Association. - 1535-7228 .- 0002-953X. ; 160:11, s. 1965-1969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The serotonin system has long been of interest in biological models of human personality. The purpose of this positron emission tomography (PET) study was to search for relationships between serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor density and personality traits. METHOD: Fifteen normal male subjects, ages 20-45 years, were examined with PET and the radioligand [(11)C]WAY100635. Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory self-report questionnaire. Binding potential, an index for the density of available 5-HT(1A) receptors, was calculated for the dorsal raphe nuclei, the hippocampal formation, and the neocortex. For each region, correlation coefficients between 5-HT(1A) receptor binding potential and Temperament and Character Inventory personality dimensions were calculated and analyzed in two-tailed tests for significance. RESULTS: The authors found that the binding potential correlated inversely with scores for self-transcendence, a personality trait covering religious behavior and attitudes. No correlations were found for any of the other six Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions. The self-transcendence dimension consists of three distinct subscales, and further analysis showed that the subscale for spiritual acceptance correlated significantly with binding potential but not with the other two subscales. CONCLUSIONS: This finding in normal male subjects indicated that the serotonin system may serve as a biological basis for spiritual experiences. The authors speculated that the several-fold variability in 5-HT(1A) receptor density may explain why people vary greatly in spiritual zeal.
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6.
  • Carlbring, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Remote treatment of panic disorder : A randomized trial of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy supplemented with telephone calls
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 163:12, s. 2119-2125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study evaluated a 10-week Internet-based bibliotherapy self-help program with short weekly telephone calls for people suffering from panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Method: After the authors confirmed the diagnosis by administering the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV by telephone, 60 participants were randomly assigned to either a wait-listed control group or a multimodal treatment package based on cognitive behavior therapy plus minimal therapist contact via e-mail. A 10-minute telephone call was made each week to support each participant. Total mean time spent on each participant during the 10 weeks was 3.9 hours. The participants were required to send in homework assignments before receiving the next treatment module. Results: Analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis, which included all randomly assigned participants. From pretreatment to posttreatment, all treated participants improved significantly on all measured dimensions (bodily interpretations, maladaptive cognitions, avoidance, general anxiety and depression levels, and quality of life). Treatment gains on self-report measures were maintained at the 9-month follow-up. A blind telephone interview after the end of treatment revealed that 77% of the treated patients no longer fulfilled the criteria for panic disorder, whereas all of the wait-listed subjects still suffered from it. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to support the use of treatment distributed via the Internet with the addition of short weekly telephone calls to treat panic disorder. Replication should be made to compare self-help and telephone treatment based on cognitive behavior methods with nonspecific interventions.
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7.
  • Cuijpers, Pim, et al. (författare)
  • Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression: A Meta-Analysis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. - : American Psychiatric Association. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 168:6, s. 581-592
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a structured and time-limited therapy, has been studied in many controlled trials. Numerous practice guidelines have recommended IPT as a treatment of choice for unipolar depressive disorders. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to integrate research on the effects of IPT. Method: The authors searched bibliographical databases for randomized controlled trials comparing IPT with no treatment, usual care, other psychological treatments, and pharmacotherapy as well as studies comparing combination treatment using pharmacotherapy and IPT. Maintenance studies were also included. Results: Thirty-eight studies including 4,356 patients met all inclusion criteria. The overall effect size (Cohens d) of the 16 studies that compared IPT and a control group was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.36 to 0.90), corresponding to a number needed to treat of 2.91. Ten studies comparing IPT and other psychological treatments showed a nonsignificant differential effect size of 0.04 (95% CI=-0.14 to 0.21; number needed to treat=45.45) favoring IPT. Pharmacotherapy (after removal of one outlier) was more effective than IPT (d=-0.19, 95% CI=-0.38 to -0.01; number needed to treat=9.43), and combination treatment was not more effective than IPT alone, although the paucity of studies precluded drawing definite conclusions. Combination maintenance treatment with pharmacotherapy and IPT was more effective in preventing relapse than pharmacotherapy alone (odds ratio=0.37; 95% CI=0.19 to 0.73; number needed to treat=7.63). Conclusions: There is no doubt that IPT efficaciously treats depression, both as an independent treatment and in combination with pharmacotherapy. IPT deserves its place in treatment guidelines as one of the most empirically validated treatments for depression.
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8.
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9.
  • Dong, Li, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the Circadian Rhythm Gene Period 1 (Per1) on Psychosocial Stress-Induced Alcohol Drinking
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 168:10, s. 1090-1098
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Circadian and stress-response systems mediate environmental changes that affect alcohol drinking. Psychosocial stress is an environmental risk factor for alcohol abuse. Circadian rhythm gene period 1(Per1) is targeted by stress hormones and is transcriptionally activated in corticotropin releasing factor-expressing cells. The authors hypothesized that Per1 is involved in integrating stress response and circadian rhythmicity and explored its relevance to alcohol drinking. Method: In mice, the effects of stress on ethanol intake in mPer1-mutant and wild-type mice were assessed. In humans, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hPer1 were tested for association with alcohol drinking behavior in 273 adolescents and an adult case-control sample of 1,006 alcohol-dependent patients and 1,178 comparison subjects. In vitro experiments were conducted to measure genotype-specific expression and transcription factor binding to hPer1. Results: The mPer1-mutant mice showed enhanced alcohol consumption in response to social defeat stress relative to their wild-type littermates. An association with the frequency of heavy drinking in adolescents with the hPer1 promoter SNP rs3027172 and with psychosocial adversity was found. There was significant interaction between the rs3027172 genotype and psychosocial adversity on this drinking measure. In a confirmatory analysis, association of hPer1 rs3027172 with alcohol dependence was shown. Cortisol-induced transcriptional activation of hPer1 was reduced in human B-lymphoblastoid cells carrying the risk genotype of rs3027172. Binding affinity of the transcription factor Snail1 to the risk allele of the hPer1 SNP rs3027172 was also reduced. Conclusions: The findings indicate that the hPer1 gene regulates alcohol drinking behavior during stressful conditions and provide evidence for underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
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10.
  • Forsell, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Proof of Concept for an Adaptive Treatment Strategy to Prevent Failures in Internet-Delivered CBT : A Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial With Insomnia Patients
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - : American Psychiatric Publishing. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 176:4, s. 315-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate proof of concept for an adaptive treatment strategy in Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), where risk of treatment failure is assessed early in treatment and treatment for at-risk patients is adapted to prevent treatment failure. Methods: A semiautomated algorithm assessed risk of treatment failure early in treatment in 251 patients undergoing ICBT for insomnia with therapist guidance. At-risk patients were randomly assigned to continue standard ICBT or to receive adapted ICBT. The primary outcome was self-rated insomnia symptoms using the Insomnia Severity Index in a linear mixed-effects model. The main secondary outcome was treatment failure (having neither responded nor remitted at the posttreatment assessment). Results: A total of 102 patients were classified as at risk and randomly assigned to receive adapted ICBT (N=51) or standard ICBT (N=51); 149 patients were classified as not at risk. Patients not at risk had significantly greater score reductions on the Insomnia Severity Index than at-risk patients given standard ICBT. Adapted ICBT for at-risk patients was significantly more successful in reducing symptoms compared with standard ICBT, and it decreased the risk of failing treatment (odds ratio= 0.33). At-risk patients receiving adapted ICBT were not more likely to experience treatment failure than those not at risk (odds ratio= 0.51), though they were less likely to experience remission. Adapted treatment required, on average, 14 more minutes of therapist-patient time per remaining week. Conclusions: An adaptive treatment strategy can increase treatment effects for at-risk patients and reduce the number of failed treatments. Future studies should improve accuracy in classification algorithms and identify key factors that boost the effect of adapted treatments.
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