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1.
  • Andersson-Gäre, Boel, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and prevalence of juvenile chronic arthritis : a population survey
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. - 0003-4967 (Print) 0003-4967 (Linking) ; 46:4, s. 277-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a population based epidemiological survey of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), performed in Western Sweden in 1983, an incidence of 12/100,000 was found. The estimated prevalence was 56/100,000. Subgroup distribution showed a preponderance of mono- and pauciarticular forms. The peak age of onset was between 0 and 4 years of age. Girls predominated over boys in a ratio of 3:2. Overall, 30% were antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive, 9% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, and eye involvement occurred in 10% of the children. The results suggest differences in population based studies of JCA compared with previously reported hospital based series.
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2.
  • Saad-Magalhaes, C., et al. (författare)
  • Does removal of aids/devices and help make a difference in the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. - 1468-2060 (Electronic) 0003-4967 (Linking) ; 69:1, s. 82-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the removal of aids/devices and/or help from another person in the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (C-HAQ) leads to a significant change in the disability index (DI) score and responsiveness in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).METHODS: Changes in the C-HAQ DI score in a cross-sectional sample of 2663 children with JIA and in 530 active patients with JIA in a trial of methotrexate (MTX) were compared.RESULTS: Patients in the MTX trial had higher disease activity and disability than the cross-sectional sample. The frequency of aids/devices (range 1.2-10.2%) was similar between the two samples, while help (range 5.3-38.1%) was more frequently used in the MTX group. Correlation between disease severity variables and the two different C-HAQ DI scoring methods did not change substantially. There was a decrease in the C-HAQ DI score for both the cross-sectional (mean score from 0.64 with the original method to 0.54 without aids/devices and help, p<0.0001) and the MTX sample (mean score from 1.23 to 1.07, p<0.0001). A linear regression analysis of the original C-HAQ DI score versus the score without aids/devices and help demonstrated the substantial overlap of the different scoring methods. Responsiveness in the responders to MTX treatment did not change with the different C-HAQ DI scoring methods (range 0.86-0.82).CONCLUSION: The removal of aids/devices and help from the C-HAQ does not alter the interpretation of disability at a group level. The simplified C-HAQ is a more feasible and valid alternative for the evaluation of disability in patients with JIA.
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3.
  • Wanders, A., et al. (författare)
  • Association between radiographic damage of the spine and spinal mobility for individual patients with ankylosing spondylitis : can assessment of spinal mobility be a proxy for radiographic evaluation?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Ann Rheum Dis. - 0003-4967 (Print) 0003-4967 (Linking) ; 64:7, s. 988-994
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the association between various measures of spinal mobility and radiographic damage of the spine in individual patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and to determine whether the assessment of spinal mobility can be a proxy for the assessment of radiographic damage. METHODS: Radiographic damage was assessed by the mSASSS. Cumulative probability plots combined the radiographic damage score of an individual patient with the corresponding score for nine spinal mobility measures. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cut off level of every spinal mobility measure that discriminates best between the presence and absence of radiographic damage. Three arbitrary cut off levels for radiographic damage were investigated. Likelihood ratios were calculated to explore further the diagnostic properties of the spinal mobility measures. RESULTS: Cumulative probability plots showed an association between spinal mobility measures and radiographic damage for the individual patient. Irrespective of the chosen cut off level for radiographic progression, lateral spinal flexion and BASMI discriminated best between patients with and those without structural damage. Even the best discriminatory spinal mobility assessments misclassified a considerable proportion of patients (up to 20%). Intermalleolar distance performed worst (up to 30% misclassifications). Lateral spinal flexion best predicted the absence of radiographic damage, and a modified Schober test best predicted the presence of radiographic damage. CONCLUSION: This study unequivocally demonstrated a relationship between spinal mobility and radiographic damage. However, spinal mobility cannot be used as a proxy for radiographic evaluation in an individual patient.
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4.
  • Abelson, Anna-Karin, et al. (författare)
  • STAT4 Associates with SLE through two independent effects that correlate with gene expression and act additively with IRF5 to increase risk
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 68:11, s. 1746-1753
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. METHODS: 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5'-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE.
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5.
  • Agca, R., et al. (författare)
  • EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ann Rheum Dis. - : British Medical Association. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 76:1, s. 17-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders (IJD) have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared with the general population. In 2009, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) taskforce recommended screening, identification of CVD risk factors and CVD risk management largely based on expert opinion. In view of substantial new evidence, an update was conducted with the aim of producing CVD risk management recommendations for patients with IJD that now incorporates an increasing evidence base. A multidisciplinary steering committee (representing 13 European countries) comprised 26 members including patient representatives, rheumatologists, cardiologists, internists, epidemiologists, a health professional and fellows. Systematic literature searches were performed and evidence was categorised according to standard guidelines. The evidence was discussed and summarised by the experts in the course of a consensus finding and voting process. Three overarching principles were defined. First, there is a higher risk for CVD in patients with RA, and this may also apply to ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Second, the rheumatologist is responsible for CVD risk management in patients with IJD. Third, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids should be in accordance with treatment-specific recommendations from EULAR and Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society. Ten recommendations were defined, of which one is new and six were changed compared with the 2009 recommendations. Each designated an appropriate evidence support level. The present update extends on the evidence that CVD risk in the whole spectrum of IJD is increased. This underscores the need for CVD risk management in these patients. These recommendations are defined to provide assistance in CVD risk management in IJD, based on expert opinion and scientific evidence.
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6.
  • Agmon-Levin, Nancy, et al. (författare)
  • International recommendations for the assessment of autoantibodies to cellular antigens referred to as anti-nuclear antibodies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 73:1, s. 17-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are fundamental for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, and have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) for decades. As the demand for ANA testing increased, alternative techniques were developed challenging the classic IIFA. These alternative platforms differ in their antigen profiles, sensitivity and specificity, raising uncertainties regarding standardisation and interpretation of incongruent results. Therefore, an international group of experts has created recommendations for ANA testing by different methods. Two groups of experts participated in this initiative. The European autoimmunity standardization initiative representing 15 European countries and the International Union of Immunologic Societies/World Health Organization/Arthritis Foundation/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autoantibody standardising committee. A three-step process followed by a Delphi exercise with closed voting was applied. Twenty-five recommendations for determining ANA (1-13), anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (14-18), specific antibodies (19-23) and validation of methods (24-25) were created. Significant differences between experts were observed regarding recommendations 24-25 (p<0.03). Here, we formulated recommendations for the assessment and interpretation of ANA and associated antibodies. Notably, the roles of IIFA as a reference method, and the importance of defining nuclear and cytoplasmic staining, were emphasised, while the need to incorporate alternative automated methods was acknowledged. Various approaches to overcome discrepancies between methods were suggested of which an improved bench-to-bedside communication is of the utmost importance. These recommendations are based on current knowledge and can enable harmonisation of local algorithms for testing and evaluation of ANA and related autoantibodies. Last but not least, new more appropriate terminologies have been suggested.
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7.
  • Ahlstrand, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational balance and its relation to performance of valued life activities in persons with rheumatoid arthritis in working age
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 77:Suppl. 2, s. 186-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Experience of balance in everyday activities where work is an essential part is important to health and well-being, as has also been observed in previous studies in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Valued life activity scale (VLA-swe) is a questionnaire in which patient’s first report if the separate activities are valued or not to perform and secondly difficulties to perform these activities. Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ) focuses on satisfaction with the amount and variation of occupations.Objectives The objectives were to 1) describe the relationship between performance of valued activities and experienced occupational balance, and to 2) identify aspects associated with low occupational balance in persons with RA.Methods 368 persons (age 18–65 years, 77% women) with RA responded to a questionnaire measuring occupational balance (OBQ) and performance of valued life activities (VLA-swe). Other aspects of interest were activity limitations measured by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain (measured by VAS), continuous stress (stressed continuously for more than a month during the last 12 months), children at home, education, and living situation. The relation between OBQ and performance in VLA across genders and Workers/Non-workers were analysed using non-parametric correlation analyses. To identify the impact of different aspects on the likelihood that participants would report lower occupational balance, OBQ was analysed using workers/nonworkers, stress, gender, age, pain and difficulties performing valued activities as independent variables in logistic regressions models. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee (Dnr2011/452–31).Results The OBQ was significantly related to difficulties to perform valued activities reported by VLA (r=-0.41, p<0.001). Having more difficulties performing valued activities was the strongest predictor of lower occupation balance and increased the risk of reporting lower occupation balance with nearly five times (OR=4.54, p 0.001). Continuous stress increased the risk of having lower occupation balance more than three times (OR=3.27, p<0.0001) than those who not reported being stressed. The other variables show no significant impact on the likelihood that the participants would report lower occupational balance.Conclusions The results showed support for the relationship between occupation balance and performance of valued life activities and highlights to identify what’s important for the individual and to assume that in the rehabilitation. The results also show the importance of ability to manage stress, in order to enable for retaining ability to work and achieve high occupational balance.
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8.
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9.
  • Aili, Katarina, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Long term trajectories of chronic widespread pain : a 21-year prospective cohort latent class analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - London, UK : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 78:Suppl 2, s. 239-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common (population prevalence of approximately 10%) and has a significant impact on the individual, healthcare, and society. Currently little is known about the actual course of CWP over time, in particular the pathways to the development and maintenance of CWP. One useful way to understand these pathways is to identify common clusters of people who share pain trajectories. Such information is clinically useful to identify factors that predict development, persistence, and resolution of CWP.Objectives: To identify different longitudinal pain trajectories over a period of 21 years.Methods: A 21-year longitudinal open-population cohort of n=1858 adults (aged 20-74) who completed surveys relating to their pain status in at least three of the five time points 1995, 1998, 2003, 2007, and 2016. Pain status (presence of persistent pain) was ascertained from a report of painful regions (0-18) on a pain mannequin and categorised into: NCP (No chronic pain), CRP (Chronic regional pain) and CWP (chronic widespread pain). Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was carried out based on these categories. Participants were assigned to a trajectory cluster where the posterior probability was the highest. Model fit was assessed by statistical indices and clinical interpretations of clusters.Results: LCGA identified five clusters describing different pathways of NCP, CRP and CWP over the 21 years. The cluster “Persistent NCP” was the most common pathway (n = 1052, 57%) representing those with no chronic pain over the whole time period. The “Persistent CRP or Migration from CRP to NCP” cluster included 411 individuals (22%) representing a group with stable or improving regional pain. In the groups who were shown to increase pain status, the “Migration from NCP to CRP or CWP” cluster included 92 individuals (5%), and there were 184 individuals (10%) in the cluster “Migration from CRP to CWP” representing a group with regional pain who developed CWP. The final cluster “Persistent CWP” included 119 individuals (6%) representing those with stable CWP throughout the time period. Figure 1 presents the mean number of pain sites over time by cluster.Conclusion: This study showed that whilst half of adults report no chronic pain over 21 years, a substantial proportion develop CWP or have persistent CWP over this time period. Whilst a common trajectory was movement from chronic regional pain to no chronic pain, a pattern of improving CWP was not seen suggesting this is an uncommon trajectory. This is the first study to show long-term trajectories for CWP, and further work is now required to understand factors that may identify individuals at risk of worsening pain status and factors that might promote improvement. These identified pathways of chronic pain over a lifespan improve the understanding of long-term development of chronic pain and chronic widespread pain. © Aili et al. 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
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10.
  • Aili, Katarina, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Passive coping strategies but not physical function are associated with worse mental health, in women with chronic widespread pain – a mixed method study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - London, UK : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 78:Suppl 2, s. 2159-2159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common condition (approximately 10% prevalence), that affects women twice as often as men. There is a lack of knowledge in how different coping strategies relates to health status during CWP development in a general population.Objectives: To explore different ways of coping with CWP and to relate the different coping strategies to health-related factors, before and after developing CWP.Methods: A sequential explorative mixed methods study including 19 women 45-67 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016, but not in 1995. Individual interviews were analysed with a phenomenographic approach, and resulted in four categories of coping strategies. These categories were further explored with regard to four dimensions of health status (physical function, bodily pain, vitality and mental health) as measured by SF-36 (0-100, a lower score indicates more disability) and sleep problems measured both in 1995, and 2016.Results: The qualitative analysis revealed four categories representing different coping strategies, where each woman was labelled by the most dominant category; the mastering woman, the persistent woman, the compliant woman and the conquered woman. The first two categories emerged as being active coping strategies, and the latter two as passive. Women with passive strategies reported significantly lower vitality (median 57.5 vs 75, p=0.007) and worse mental health (median 54 vs 93, p=0.021) in 1995, before they had developed CWP compared with those with active coping strategies. No differences were seen between the groups on physical function, bodily pain or sleep.In 2016, there were still a difference between the passive and active group regarding mental health (median 56 vs 80, p=0.022), but not for vitality (median 35 vs 40, p=0.707). No differences were seen between the groups on physical function or bodily pain. All eight women with passive strategies reported problems with sleep in 2016, as compared to 6 of the 11 women with active strategies (p=0.045).Conclusion: Women that reported CWP in 2016, but not in 1995, described both active and passive coping strategies. The qualitative findings were associated with differences in vitality and mental health already in 1995, before they had developed CWP. Further, those with passive coping strategies reported worse health with regard to mental health and sleep problems in 2016. Interestingly, the groups did not differ in bodily pain or physical function neither in 1995 nor in 2016, which implicates the importance for the clinician to take the typical coping strategy into consideration, when meeting these patients in clinical settings. © Aili, Bergman, Bremander, Haglund & Larsson 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
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