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  • Holtzman, Jon A., et al. (författare)
  • APOGEE Data Releases 13 and 14 : Data and Analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 156:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The data and analysis methodology used for the SDSS/APOGEE Data Releases 13 and 14 are described, highlighting differences from the DR12 analysis presented in Holtzman et al. Some improvement in the handling of telluric absorption and persistence is demonstrated. The derivation and calibration of stellar parameters, chemical abundances, and respective uncertainties are described, along with the ranges over which calibration was performed. Some known issues with the public data related to the calibration of the effective temperatures (DR13), surface gravity (DR13 and DR14), and C and N abundances for dwarfs (DR13 and DR14) are highlighted. We discuss how results from a data-driven technique, The Cannon, are included in DR14 and compare those with results from the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline. We describe how using The Cannon in a mode that restricts the abundance analysis of each element to regions of the spectrum with known features from that element leads to Cannon abundances can lead to significantly different results for some elements than when all regions of the spectrum are used to derive abundances.
  • Nowak, G., et al. (författare)
  • EPIC 219388192b-An Inhabitant of the Brown Dwarf Desert in the Ruprecht 147 Open Cluster
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 153:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of EPIC 219388192b, a transiting brown dwarf in a 5.3 day orbit around a member star of Ruprecht 147, the oldest nearby open cluster association, which was photometrically monitored by K2 during its Campaign 7. We combine the K2 time-series data with ground-based adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to rule out false positive scenarios and determine the main parameters of the system. EPIC 219388192b has a radius of R-b= 0.937 +/- 0.032 R-Jup and mass of M-b= 36.84 +/- 0.97 M-Jup, yielding a mean density of 59.6 +/- 7.6 g cm(- 3). The host star is nearly a solar twin with mass M-star = 1.01 +/- 0.04 Me, radius R-star = 1.01 +/- 0.03 R-circle dot, effective temperature T-eff = 5850 +/- 85 K, and iron abundance [Fe/ H]. = 0.03 +/- 0.08 dex. Its age, spectroscopic distance, and reddening are consistent with those of Ruprecht 147, corroborating its cluster membership. EPIC 219388192b is the first mature brown dwarf with precise determinations of mass, radius, and age, and serves as benchmark for evolutionary models in the substellar regime.
  • Wittenmyer, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • The K2-HERMES Survey. I. Planet-candidate Properties from K2 Campaigns 1-3
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 155:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accurate and precise radius estimates of transiting exoplanets are critical for understanding their compositions and formation mechanisms. To know the planet, we must know the host star in as much detail as possible. We present first results from the K2-HERMES project, which uses the HERMES multi-object spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope to obtain R ∼ 28000 spectra of up to 360 stars in one exposure. This ongoing project aims to derive self-consistent spectroscopic parameters for about half of K2 target stars. We present complete stellar parameters and isochrone-derived masses and radii for 46 stars hosting 57 K2 candidate planets in Campaigns 1-3. Our revised host-star radii cast severe doubt on three candidate planets: EPIC 201407812.01, EPIC 203070421.01, and EPIC 202843107.01, all of which now have inferred radii well in excess of the largest known inflated Jovian planets.
  • Alsubai, Khalid, et al. (författare)
  • Qatar Exoplanet Survey : Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 153:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b, three new transiting planets identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. The three planets belong to the hot Jupiter family, with orbital periods of P-Q3b = 2.50792 days, P-Q4b = 1.80539 days, and P-Q5b = 2.87923 days. Follow-up spectroscopic observations reveal the masses of the planets to be M-Q3b = 4.31 +/- 0.47 M-J, M-Q4b = 6.10 +/- 0.54 M-J, and M-Q5b = 4.32 +/- 0.18 M-J, while model fits to the transit light curves yield radii of R-Q3b = 1.096 +/- 0.14 RJ, R-Q4b = 1.135 +/- 0.11 R-J, and R-Q5b = 1.107 +/- 0.064 R-J. The host stars are low-mass main sequence stars with masses and radii M-Q3 = 1.145 +/- 0.064 M circle dot, M-Q4 = 0.896 +/- 0.048 M circle dot, M-Q5 = 1.128 +/- 0.056 M circle dot and R-Q3 = 1.272 +/- 0.14 R circle dot, R-Q4 = 0.849 +/- 0.063 R circle dot, and R-Q5 = 1.076 +/- 0.051 R circle dot for Qatar-3, 4, and 5 respectively. The V magnitudes of the three host stars are V-Q3 = 12.88, V-Q4 = 13.60, and V-Q5 = 12.82. All three new planets can be classified as heavy hot Jupiters (M > 4 M-J).
  • Aronson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Model-independent Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 155:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose a new data analysis method for obtaining transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and brightness variation across the stellar disk from transit observations. The new method is capable of recovering exoplanet atmosphere absorption spectra and stellar specific intensities without relying on theoretical models of stars and planets. We simultaneously fit both stellar specific intensity and planetary radius directly to transit light curves. This allows stellar models to be removed from the data analysis. Furthermore, we use a data quality weighted filtering technique to achieve an optimal trade-off between spectral resolution and reconstruction fidelity homogenizing the signal-to-noise ratio across the wavelength range. Such an approach is more efficient than conventional data binning onto a low-resolution wavelength grid. We demonstrate that our analysis is capable of reproducing results achieved by using an explicit quadratic limb-darkening equation and that the filtering technique helps eliminate spurious spectral features in regions with strong telluric absorption. The method is applied to the VLT FORS2 observations of the exoplanets GJ 1214 b and WASP-49 b, and our results are in agreement with previous studies. Comparisons between obtained stellar specific intensity and numerical models indicates that the method is capable of accurately reconstructing the specific intensity. The proposed method enables more robust characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres by separating derivation of planetary transmission and stellar specific intensity spectra (that is model-independent) from chemical and physical interpretation.
  • Baron, Frédérique, et al. (författare)
  • WEIRD : Wide-orbit Exoplanet Search with InfraRed Direct Imaging
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 156:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report results from the Wide-orbit Exoplanet search with InfraRed Direct imaging, or WEIRD, a survey designed to search for Jupiter-like companions on very wide orbits (1000-5000 au) around young stars (<120 Myr) that are known members of moving groups in the solar neighborhood (<70 pc). Companions that share the same age, distance, and metallicity as their host while being on large enough orbits to be studied as isolated objects make prime targets for spectroscopic observations, and they are valuable benchmark objects for exoplanet atmosphere models. The search strategy is based on deep imaging in multiple bands across the near-infrared domain For all 177 objects of our sample, z(ab)', J, [3.6], and [4.5] images were obtained with CFHT/MegaCam, GEMINI/GMOS, CFHT/WIRCam, GEMINI/Flamingos-2, and Spitzer IIRAC. Using this set of four images per target, we searched for sources with red z(ab)' and [3.6]-[4.5] colors, typically reaching good completeness down to 2 M-J(up) companions, while going down to 1 M-J(up) for some targets, at separations of 1000-5000 au. The search yielded four candidate companions with the expected colors, but they were all rejected through follow-up proper motion observations. Our results constrain the occurrence of 1-13 M(J)(u)p planetary-mass companions on orbits with a semimajor axis between 1000 and 5000 au at less than 0.03, with a 95% confidence level.
  • Bolin, Bryce T. (författare)
  • Characterization of the Nucleus, Morphology, and Activity of Interstellar Comet 2I/Borisov by Optical and Near-infrared GROWTH, Apache Point, IRTF, ZTF, and Keck Observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 160:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present visible and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and spectroscopic observations of interstellar object (ISO) 2I/Borisov taken from 2019 September 10 to 2019 December 20 using the GROWTH, the Apache Point Observatory Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility 3.0 m combined with pre- and postdiscovery observations of 2I obtained by the Zwicky Transient Facility from 2019 March 17 to 2019 May 5. Comparison with imaging of distant solar system comets shows an object very similar to mildly active solar system comets with an outgassing rate of similar to 10(27)mol s(-1). The photometry, taken in filters spanning the visible and NIR range, shows a gradual brightening trend of similar to 0.03 mag day(-1)since 2019 September 10 UTC for a reddish object becoming neutral in the NIR. The light curve from recent and prediscovery data reveals a brightness trend suggesting the recent onset of significant H2O sublimation with the comet being active with super volatiles such as CO at heliocentric distances >6 au consistent with its extended morphology. Using the advanced capability to significantly reduce the scattered light from the coma enabled by high-resolution NIR images from Keck adaptive optics taken on 2019 October 4, we estimate a diameter for 2I's nucleus of less than or similar to 1.4 km. We use the size estimates of 1I/'Oumuamua and 2I/Borisov to roughly estimate the slope of the ISO size distribution, resulting in a slope of similar to 3.4 1.2, similar to solar system comets and bodies produced from collisional equilibrium.
  • Brahm, R., et al. (författare)
  • HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b : Four Short-period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune-Jupiter Mass Range
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 155:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of four short-period extrasolar planets transiting moderately bright stars from photometric measurements of the HATSouth network coupled to additional spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations. While the planet masses range from 0.26 to 0.90 M-J, the radii are all approximately a Jupiter radii, resulting in a wide range of bulk densities. The orbital period of the planets ranges from 2.7 days to 4.7 days, with HATS-43b having an orbit that appears to be marginally non-circular (e = 0.173 +/- 0.089). HATS-44 is notable for having a high metallicity ([Fe/H]= 0.320 +/- 0.071). The host stars spectral types range from late F to early K, and all of them are moderately bright (13.3 < V < 14.4), allowing the execution of future detailed follow-up observations. HATS-43b and HATS-46b, with expected transmission signals of 2350 ppm and 1500 ppm, respectively, are particularly well suited targets for atmospheric characterization via transmission spectroscopy.
  • Carleo, Ilaria, et al. (författare)
  • The Multiplanet System TOI-421*
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 160:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of a warm Neptune and a hot sub-Neptune transiting TOI-421 (BD-14 1137, TIC 94986319), a bright (V = 9.9) G9 dwarf star in a visual binary system observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) space mission in Sectors 5 and 6. We performed ground-based follow-up observations-comprised of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope transit photometry, NIRC2 adaptive optics imaging, and FIbre-fed Echelle Spectrograph, CORALIE, High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, High Resolution echelle Spectrometer, and Planet Finder Spectrograph high-precision Doppler measurements-and confirmed the planetary nature of the 16 day transiting candidate announced by the TESS team. We discovered an additional radial velocity signal with a period of five days induced by the presence of a second planet in the system, which we also found to transit its host star. We found that the inner mini-Neptune, TOI-421 b, has an orbital period of P-b = 5.19672 +/- 0.00049 days, a mass of M-b = 7.17 +/- 0.66 M-circle plus, and a radius of R-b = R-circle plus, whereas the outer warm Neptune, TOI-421 c, has a period of P-c = 16.06819 +/- 0.00035 days, a mass of M-c = 16.42(-1.04)(+1.06)M(circle plus), a radius of R-c = 5.09(-0.15)(+0.16)R(circle plus), and a density of rho(c) = 0.685(-0.072)(+0.080) cm(-3). With its characteristics, the outer planet (rho(c) = 0.685(-0.0072)(+0.080) cm(-3)) is placed in the intriguing class of the super-puffy mini-Neptunes. TOI-421 b and TOI-421 c are found to be well-suited for atmospheric characterization. Our atmospheric simulations predict significant Ly alpha transit absorption, due to strong hydrogen escape in both planets, as well as the presence of detectable CH4 in the atmosphere of TOI-421 c if equilibrium chemistry is assumed.
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