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  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 703:2, s. 1249-1256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse gamma-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200 degrees to 260 degrees and latitude vertical bar b vertical bar from 22 degrees to 60 degrees) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of gamma-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual gamma-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated gamma-ray emissivity is (1.63 +/- 0.05) x 10(-26) photons s(-1)sr(-1) H-atom(-1) and (0.66 +/- 0.02) x 10(-26) photons s(-1)sr(-1) H-atom(-1) above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of similar to 10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within similar to 10%.
  • Foley, R. J. (författare)
  • Spectroscopy of High-Redshift Supernovae from the Essence Project : The First Four Years
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. - 0004-6256 ; 137, s. 3731-3742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of spectroscopic observations from the ESSENCE high-redshift supernova (SN) survey during its first four years of operation. This sample includes spectra of all SNe Ia whose light curves were presented by Miknaitis et al. and used in the cosmological analyses of Davis et al. and Wood-Vasey et al. The sample represents 273 hr of spectroscopic observations with 6.5-10 m class telescopes of objects detected and selected for spectroscopy by the ESSENCE team. We present 184 spectra of 156 objects. Combining this sample with that of Matheson et al., we have a total sample of 329 spectra of 274 objects. From this, we are able to spectroscopically classify 118 Type Ia SNe. As the survey has matured, the efficiency of classifying SNe Ia has remained constant while we have observed both higher-redshift SNe Ia and SNe Ia farther from maximum brightness. Examining the subsample of SNe Ia with host-galaxy redshifts shows that redshifts derived from only the SN Ia spectra are consistent with redshifts found from host-galaxy spectra. Moreover, the phases derived from only the SN Ia spectra are consistent with those derived from light-curve fits. By comparing our spectra to local templates, we find that the rate of objects similar to the overluminous SN 1991T and the underluminous SN 1991bg in our sample are consistent with that of the local sample. We do note, however, that we detect no object spectroscopically or photometrically similar to SN 1991bg. Although systematic effects could reduce the high-redshift rate we expect based on the low-redshift surveys, it is possible that SN 1991bg-like SNe Ia are less prevalent at high redshift.
  • Ho, Anna Y. Q. (författare)
  • The Broad-lined Ic Supernova ZTF18aaqjovh (SN 2018bvw) : An Optically Discovered Engine-driven Supernova Candidate with Luminous Radio Emission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 893:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present ZTF18aaqjovh (SN 2018bvw), a high-velocity (broad-lined) stripped-envelope (Type Ic) supernova (Ic-BL SN) discovered in the Zwicky Transient Facility one-day cadence survey. ZTF18aaqjovh shares a number of features in common with engine-driven explosions: the photospheric velocity and the shape of the optical light curve are very similar to those of the Type.Ic-BL SN 1998bw, which was associated with a low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (LLGRB) and had relativistic ejecta. However, the radio luminosity of ZTF18aaqjovh is almost two orders of magnitude fainter than that of SN 1998bw at the same velocity phase, and the shock velocity is at most mildly relativistic (v.=.0.06-0.4c). A search of high-energy catalogs reveals no compelling gamma-ray burst (GRB) counterpart to ZTF18aaqjovh, and the limit on the prompt GRB luminosity of g >> ' L 1.6 10 erg s, iso 48 1 excludes a classical GRB but not an LLGRB. Altogether, ZTF18aaqjovh represents another transition event between engine-driven SNe associated with GRBs and ordinary Ic-BL SNe.
  • Franchini, Mariagrazia, et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Carbon Abundance in the Galactic Thin and Thick Disks
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 888:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper focuses on carbon, which is one of the most abundant elements in the universe and is of high importance in the field of nucleosynthesis and galactic and stellar evolution. The origin of carbon and the relative importance of massive and low-to intermediate-mass stars in producing it is still a matter of debate. We aim at better understanding the origin of carbon by studying the trends of [C/H], [C/Fe], and [C/Mg] versus [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] for 2133 FGK dwarf stars from the fifth Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release (GES iDR5). The availability of accurate parallaxes and proper motions from Gaia DR2 and radial velocities from GES iDR5 allows us to compute Galactic velocities, orbits, absolute magnitudes, and, for 1751 stars, Bayesian-derived ages. Three different selection methodologies have been adopted to discriminate between thin-and thick-disk stars. In all the cases, the two stellar groups show different [C/H], [C/Fe], and [C/Mg] and span different age intervals, with the thick-disk stars being, on average, older than the thin-disk ones. The behaviors of [C/H], [C/Fe], and [C/Mg] versus [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and age all suggest that C is primarily produced in massive stars. The increase of [C/Mg] for young thin-disk stars indicates a contribution from low-mass stars or the increased C production from massive stars at high metallicities due to the enhanced mass loss. The analysis of the orbital parameters R med and IMG ALIGN="MIDDLE" ALT="$| {Z}-{\max }| $" SRC="apjab5dc4ieqn1.gif supports an "inside-out" and "upside-down" formation scenario for the disks of the Milky Way.
  • Guerço, Rafael, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorine Abundances in the Galactic Disk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 885:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chemical evolution of fluorine is investigated in a sample of Milky Way red giant stars that span a significant range in metallicity from [Fe/H] ∼-1.3 to 0.0 dex. Fluorine abundances are derived from vibration-rotation lines of HF in high-resolution infrared spectra near 2.335 μm. The red giants are members of the thin and thick disk/halo, with two stars being likely members of the outer disk Monoceros overdensity. At lower metallicities, with [Fe/H] <-0.4 to-0.5, the abundance of F varies as a primary element with respect to the Fe abundance, with a constant subsolar value of [F/Fe] ∼-0.3 to-0.4 dex. At larger metallicities, however, [F/Fe] increases rapidly with [Fe/H] and displays a near-secondary behavior with respect to Fe. Comparisons with various models of chemical evolution suggest that in the low-metallicity regime (dominated here by thick-disk stars), a primary evolution of 19F with Fe, with a subsolar [F/Fe] value that roughly matches the observed plateau, can be reproduced by a model incorporating neutrino nucleosynthesis in the aftermath of the core collapse in Type II supernovae. A primary behavior for [F/Fe] at low metallicity is also observed for a model including rapidly rotating low-metallicity massive stars, but this overproduces [F/Fe] at low metallicity. The thick-disk red giants in our sample span a large range of galactocentric distance (R g ∼ 6-13.7 kpc) yet display a roughly constant value of [F/Fe], indicating a very flat gradient (with a slope of 0.02 ± 0.03 dex kpc-1) of this elemental ratio over a significant portion of the Galaxy having
  • Jones, O. C., et al. (författare)
  • Probing the Dusty Stellar Populations of the Local Volume Galaxies with JWST/MIRI
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 841:1, s. Article Number: 15-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will revolutionize our understanding of infrared stellar populations in the Local Volume. Using the rich Spitzer-IRS spectroscopic data set and spectral classifications from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Spectroscopic survey of more than 1000 objects in the Magellanic Clouds, the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch Star Model (GRAMS), and the grid of YSO models by Robitaille et al., we calculate the expected flux densities and colors in the MIRI broadband filters for prominent infrared stellar populations. We use these fluxes to explore the JWST/MIRI colors and magnitudes for composite stellar population studies of Local Volume galaxies. MIRI color classification schemes are presented; these diagrams provide a powerful means of identifying young stellar objects, evolved stars, and extragalactic background galaxies in Local Volume galaxies with a high degree of confidence. Finally, we examine which filter combinations are best for selecting populations of sources based on their JWST colors.
  • Ryde, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorine in the Solar Neighborhood : The Need for Several Cosmic Sources
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 893:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cosmic origin of fluorine is still not well constrained. Several nucleosynthetic channels at different phases of stellar evolution have been suggested, but these must be constrained by observations. For this, the fluorine abundance trend with metallicity spanning a wide range is required. Our aim is to determine stellar abundances of fluorine for. We determine the abundances from HF lines in infrared K-band spectra (∼ 2.3,&mu m) of cool giants, observed with the IGRINS and Phoenix high-resolution spectrographs. We derive accurate stellar parameters for all our observed K giants, which is important as the HF lines are very temperature-sensitive. We find that [F/Fe] is flat as a function of metallicity at [F/Fe]∼0, but increases as the metallicity increases. The fluorine slope shows a clear secondary behavior in this metallicity range. We also find that the [F/Ce] ratio is relatively flat for, and that for two metal-poor (), s-process element-enhanced giants, we do not detect an elevated fluorine abundance. We interpret all of these observational constraints as indications that several major processes are at play for the cosmic budget of fluorine over time: from those in massive stars at low metallicities, through the asymptotic giant branch star contribution at, to processes with increasing yields with metallicity at supersolar metallicities. The origins of the latter, and whether or not Wolf-Rayet stars and/or novae could contribute at supersolar metallicities, is currently not known. To quantify these observational results, theoretical modeling is required. More observations in the metal-poor region are required to clarify the processes there.
  • Souto, Diogo, et al. (författare)
  • Stellar Characterization of M Dwarfs from the APOGEE Survey : A Calibrator Sample for M-dwarf Metallicities
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 890:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities for 21 M dwarfs observed at high resolution (R ∼ 22,500) in the H band as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The atmospheric parameters and metallicities are derived from spectral syntheses with 1D LTE plane-parallel MARCS models and the APOGEE atomic/molecular line list, together with up-to-date H2O and FeH molecular line lists. Our sample range in T eff from ∼3200 to 3800 K, where 11 stars are in binary systems with a warmer (FGK) primary, while the other 10 M dwarfs have interferometric radii in the literature. We define an MKS-radius calibration based on our M-dwarf radii derived from the detailed analysis of APOGEE spectra and Gaia DR2 distances, as well as a mass-radius relation using the spectroscopically derived surface gravities. A comparison of the derived radii with interferometric values from the literature finds that the spectroscopic radii are slightly offset toward smaller values, with Δ = -0.01 ± 0.02 R∗/R o-. In addition, the derived M-dwarf masses based upon the radii and surface gravities tend to be slightly smaller (by ∼5%-10%) than masses derived for M-dwarf members of eclipsing binary systems for a given stellar radius. The metallicities derived for the 11 M dwarfs in binary systems, compared to metallicities obtained for their hotter FGK main-sequence primary stars from the literature, show excellent agreement, with a mean difference of [Fe/H](M dwarf - FGK primary) = +0.04 ± 0.18 dex, confirming the APOGEE metallicity scale derived here for M dwarfs.
  • Thorsbro, B., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence against Anomalous Compositions for Giants in the Galactic Nuclear Star Cluster
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 866:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Very strong Sc i lines have recently been found in cool M giants in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC) in the Galactic center. Interpreting these as anomalously high scandium abundances in the Galactic center would imply a unique enhancement signature and chemical evolution history for NSCs, and a potential test for models of chemical enrichment in these objects. We present high resolution K-band spectra (NIRSPEC/Keck II) of cool M giants situated in the solar neighborhood and compare them with spectra of M giants in the NSC. We clearly identify strong Sc i lines in our solar neighborhood sample as well as in the NSC sample. The strong Sc i lines in M giants are therefore not unique to stars in the NSC and we argue that the strong lines are a property of the line formation process that currently escapes accurate theoretical modeling. We further conclude that for giant stars with effective temperatures below approximately 3800 K these Sc i lines should not be used for deriving the scandium abundances in any astrophysical environment until we better understand how these lines are formed. We also discuss the lines of vanadium, titanium, and yttrium identified in the spectra, which demonstrate a similar striking increase in strength below 3500 K effective temperature.
  • Feiden, Gregory, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars. I. Stars with a Radiative Core
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 779:2, s. 183-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars---defined as less massive than 0.8M⊙---in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. The results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from the observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.
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