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  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Behavioural hearing tactics. : A controlled trial of a short treatment programme.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 35:6, s. 523-530
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Nineteen elderly hearing impaired subjects participated in an experimental treatment study and received either behavioural hearing tactics or served as untreated controls. Treatment was supplied in the form of a self-help treatment manual supplied with telephone contacts during 4 consecutive weeks. The treatment manual included applied relaxation, communication strategies training, advice to relatives, information, and coping skills. Assessments (pre-post) were conducted in a structured interview measuring coping behaviour. In order to evoke behavioural compensation small acoustic provocations were included in the interview. Pre-post assessments also included questionnaires, daily registered hearing problems, and hours of daily hearing aid use. Results showed significant beneficial effects in favour of the treatment in terms of self-assessed problems and behaviour change.
  • Saboonchi, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Perfectionism and self-consciousness in social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 37:9, s. 799-808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social phobics were compared to patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and normal controls on perfectionism and self-consciousness. On concern over mistakes and doubts about action, social phobics scored higher than patients with panic disorder. Social phobics also demonstrated a higher level of public self-consciousness than patients with panic disorder and when this difference was controlled for the significant differences on perfectionism disappeared. Within each patient group, however, perfectionism was more robustly related to social anxiety than was public self-consciousness, which replicates the findings of Saboonchi and Lundh [Saboonchi, F. & Lundh, L. G. (1997). Perfectionism, self-consciousness and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 921–928.] from a non-clinical sample. The results are discussed in terms of public self-consciousness being a differentiating characteristic of the more severe kind of social anxiety which is typical of social phobia.
  • Soares, Joaquim, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Preattentive processing, preparedness and phobias: Effects of instructions on conditioned electrodermal responses to masked and non-masked fear-relevant stimuli
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 31:1, s. 87-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We hypothetized that autonomic responses conditioned to fear-relevant stimuli, in contrast to responses conditioned to neutral stimuli, can be elicited after only an automatic, non-conscious analysis of the stimulus. Consequently, they may be expected to be insensitive to verbal instructions. Normal subjects were conditioned to either fear-relevant stimuli (snakes or spiders) or neutral stimuli (flowers or mushrooms) in a differential conditioning paradigm with shock as the unconditioned stimulus. In a subsequent extinction series, half of the subjects were shown the conditioned stimuli under masking conditions preventing their conscious recognition, whereas the other half were exposed to non-masked stimuli. Then half of the subjects in each of the masking conditions were verbally instructed that no more shocks would be delivered and then the extinction trials followed. Consistent with our hypothesis, differential responses to the fear-relevant CSs+ and CSs− remained unaffected by both masking and instruction, whereas differential responding to neutral stimuli was wiped out by the masking procedure and the verbal instruction.
  • Öst, Lars-Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Appied relaxation vs cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 33:2, s. 145-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigated the efficacy of a coping-technique, applied relaxation (AR) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in the treatment of panic disorder. Thirty-eight outpatients fulfilling the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with no (n = 30) or mild (n = 8) avoidance were assessed with independent assessor ratings, self-report scales and self-observation of panic attacks before and after treatment, and at a 1-yr follow-up. The patients were treated individually for 12 weekly sessions. The results showed that both treatments yielded very large improvements, which were maintained, or furthered at follow-up. There was no difference between AR and CBT on any measure. The proportion of panic-free patients were 65 and 74% at post-treatment, and 82 and 89% at follow-up, for AR and CBT, respectively. There were no relapses at follow-up, on the contrary 55% of the patients who still had panic attacks at post-treatment were panic-free at follow-up. Besides affecting panic attacks the treatments also yielded marked and lasting changes on generalized anxiety, depression and cognitive misinterpretations. The conclusion that can be drawn is that both AR and CBT are effective treatments for panic disorder without avoidance.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • A controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy combined with vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of dizziness
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 44:9, s. 1265-1273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dizziness is a common and often untreated symptom in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a combined cognitive-behavioral/vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program, using a randomized control design. A total of 29 participants were randomized to treatment consisting of psychoeducation, vestibular exercises, relaxation and cognitive interventions, or to serve as waiting list controls. Measures of dizziness-related handicap, dizziness-provoking movements, and daily diary registrations of dizziness symptoms at pre- and post-treatment showed statistically significant improvements in many domains, which translated to moderate effect sizes. These findings provide preliminary support for the combination of Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and VR methods in the treatment of dizziness.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 50:9, s. 544-550
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in several controlled trials, but the mechanisms of change are largely unknown. Therapeutic alliance is a factor that has been studied in many psychotherapy trials, but the role of therapeutic alliance in ICBT is less well known. The present study investigated early alliance ratings in three separate samples. Participants from one sample of depressed individuals (N = 49), one sample of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (N = 35), and one sample with social anxiety disorder (N = 90) completed the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) modified for ICBT early in the treatment (weeks 3-4) when they took part in guided ICBT for their conditions. Results showed that alliance ratings were high in all three samples and that the WAI including the subscales of Task, Goal and Bond had high internal consistencies. Overall, correlations between the WAI and residualized change scores on the primary outcome measures were small and not statistically significant. We conclude that even if alliance ratings are in line with face-to-face studies, therapeutic alliance as measured by the WAI is probably less important in ICBT than in regular face-to-face psychotherapy. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Using the Internet to provide cognitive behaviour therapy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 47:3, s. 175-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new treatment form has emerged that merges cognitive behaviour therapy with the Internet. By delivering treatment components, mainly in the form of texts presented via web pages, and provide ongoing support using e-mail promising outcomes can be achieved. The literature on this novel form of treatment has grown rapidly over recent years with several controlled trials in the field of anxiety disorders, mood disorders and behavioural medicine. For some of the conditions for which Internet-delivered CBT has been tested, independent replications have shown large effect sizes, for example in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. In some studies, Internet-delivered treatment can achieve similar outcomes as in face-to-face CBT, but the literature thus far is restricted mainly to efficacy trials. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence, comments on the role of the therapist and for which patient and therapist this is suitable. Areas of future research and exploration are identified.
  • Asenlöf, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Idiographic outcome analyses of the clinical significance of two interventions for patients with musculoskeletal pain.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 44:7, s. 947-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study adopted a perspective of the individual to define domains of everyday life for the analysis of clinically meaningful change. The purpose was to compare the clinical significance of two interventions for patients with musculoskeletal pain, applying an idiographic outcome measure, The Patient Goal Priority Questionnaire, in combination with the Jacobson and Truax methodology [(1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67 (3), 300-307] for determination of clinical significance. The concurrent validity of the outcome variables behavioral performance, satisfaction with behavioral performance, and fulfilled pre-treatment expectations was also studied. Eighty-two patients, randomized to either individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment (experimental group) or physical exercise therapy (control group) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months post-treatment regarding behavioral treatment goals. The experimental intervention had high impact on participants' performance of their highest ranked everyday life activities, and resulted in larger proportions of clinically significant outcomes compared with controls. The concurrent validity of the outcomes was high for those reporting clinically significant changes, but more generally, there was a moderate agreement across outcome categories. The individual should be the unit for analyses of clinical significance to enhance the ecological validity of the construct. Further development of idiographic outcome measures is necessary, as is the inclusion in pain intervention research.
  • Bergbom, Sofia, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Both early and late changes in psychological variables relate to treatment outcome for musculoskeletal pain patients at risk for disability
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 50:11, s. 726-734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We know little about why some people get better after psychological treatments for pain disability, whereas other people do not. In order to understand differences in treatment response, we need to explore processes of change during treatment. It has been suggested that people with pain complaints who change early in treatment have better outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether changes in psychological variables at different time points are related to outcome, and whether early or late changes are better predictors of outcome. We used the fear avoidance model as a theoretical framework. We followed 64 patients weekly over 6–7 weeks and then determined outcome. Our findings indicate that people who decrease in catastrophizing and function early in treatment as well as in depressive symptoms, worry, fear avoidance beliefs and function late in treatment have better outcomes. Early decreases in function, and late decreases in depressive symptoms and worry uniquely predict improvements in disability. While early and late changes covaried concurrently, there were no significant sequential relationships between early and late changes. Changes in the proposed process variables in the fear avoidance model, early as well as late in treatment, thus add valuable information to the explanation of outcome.
  • Berger, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-based treatment of social phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing unguided with two types of guided self-help
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY. - : Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 49:3, s. 158-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Internet-based self-help for social phobia with minimal therapist support via email have shown efficacy in several controlled trials by independent research teams. The role and necessity of therapist guidance is, however, still largely unclear. The present study compared the benefits of a 10-week web-based unguided self-help treatment for social phobia with the same intervention complemented with minimal, although weekly, therapist support via email. Further, a third treatment arm was included, in which the level of support was flexibly stepped up, from no support to email or telephone contact, on demand of the participants. Eighty-one individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for social phobia were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Primary outcome measures were self-report measures of symptoms of social phobia. Secondary outcome measures included symptoms of depression, interpersonal problems, and general symptomatology. Measures were taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Data from a telephone-administered diagnostic interview conducted at post-treatment were also included. Results showed significant symptom reductions in all three treatment groups with large effect sizes for primary social phobia measures (Cohens d=1.47) and for secondary outcome measures (d=1.16). No substantial and significant between-groups effects were found on any of the measures (Cohens d=00-.36). Moreover, no difference between the three conditions was found regarding diagnosis-free status, clinically significant change, dropout rates, or adherence measures such as lessons or exercises completed. These findings indicate that Internet-delivered treatment for social phobia is a promising treatment option, whether no support is provided or with two different types of therapist guidance.
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