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  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk following organ transplantation : a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 89:7, s. 1221-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who underwent transplantation of kidney, liver or other organs during 1970-1997 in Sweden was conducted. Complete follow-up was accomplished through linkage to nationwide databases. We used comparisons with the entire Swedish population to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and Poisson regression for multivariate internal analyses of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, we observed 692 incident first cancers vs 171 expected (SIR 4.0; 95% CI 3.7-4.4). We confirmed marked excesses of nonmelanoma skin cancer (SIR 56.2; 95% CI 49.8-63.2), lip cancer (SIR 53.3; 95% CI 38.0-72.5) and of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (SIR 6.0; 95% CI 4.4-8.0). Compared with patients who underwent kidney transplantation, those who received other organs were at substantially higher risk of NHL (RR 8.4; 95% CI 4.3-16). Besides, we found, significantly, about 20-fold excess risk of cancer of the vulva and vagina, 10-fold of anal cancer, and five-fold of oral cavity and kidney cancer, as well as two- to four-fold excesses of cancer in the oesophagus, stomach, large bowel, urinary bladder, lung and thyroid gland. In conclusion, organ transplantation entails a persistent, about four-fold increased overall cancer risk. The complex pattern of excess risk at many sites challenges current understanding of oncogenic infections that might become activated by immunologic alterations.
  • Carlsson, Jörgen, et al. (författare)
  • HER2 expression in breast cancer primary tumours and corresponding metastases : Original data and literature review
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 90:12, s. 2344-2348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the HER2 expression in breast cancer is retained in metastases. The HER2 expression in primary tumours and the corresponding lymph node metastases were evaluated in parallel samples from 47 patients. The HercepTest was used for immunohistochemical analyses of HER2 overexpression in all cases. CISH/FISH was used for analysis of gene amplification in some cases. HER2 overexpression (HER2-scores 2+ or 3+) was found in 55% of both the primary tumours and of the lymph node metastases. There were only small changes in the HER2-scores; six from 1+ to 0 and one from 3+ to 2+ when the metastases were compared to the corresponding primary tumours. However, there were no cases with drastic changes in HER2 expression between the primary tumours and the corresponding lymph node metastases. The literature was reviewed for similar investigations, and it is concluded that breast cancer lymph node metastases generally overexpress HER2 to the same extent as the corresponding primary tumours. This also seems to be the case when distant metastases are considered. It has been noted that not all patients with HER2 overexpression respond to HER2-targeted Trastuzumab treatment. The stability in HER2 expression is encouraging for efforts to develop complementary forms of therapy, for example, therapy with radionuclide-labelled Trastuzumab.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to ovarian cancer incidence : the Swedish Mammography Cohort
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 90:11, s. 2167-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We prospectively examined the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer and its subtypes in relation to baseline fruit and vegetable consumption in the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based cohort study of 61 084 women aged 38-76 years in 1987-1990. During an average follow-up of 13.5 years, 266 incident cases of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were diagnosed. After adjustment for potential confounders, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between consumption of vegetables and ovarian cancer risk (P-value for trend=0.01); the multivariate rate ratio (RR) for the comparison of three or more servings of vegetables per day with one or fewer servings per day was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.97). For fruit consumption a modest, not statistically significant, positive association was found (P-value for trend=0.07); the multivariate RR for the highest compared with the lowest category of consumption being 1.37 (95% CI, 0.90-2.06). The associations with fruit and vegetable consumption did not vary by subtype of ovarian cancer. These findings suggest that high consumption of vegetables, but not of fruits, may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Terry, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Body weight and colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women : relation varies by age and cancer site
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 85:3, s. 346-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relation between relative body weight and colorectal cancer among women is unclear. In a large prospective cohort study, we found a positive association only for distal cancers among younger women that became attenuated at older ages. These results support previous reports in which results were stratified by age or colorectal cancer site.
  • Bergström, A., et al. (författare)
  • Obesity and renal cell cancer : a quantitative review
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - London, United Kingdom : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920. - 0007-0920 (Print) 0007-0920 (Linking) ; 85:7, s. 984-990
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer among women, while the evidence for men is considered weaker. We conducted a quantitative summary analysis to evaluate the existing evidence that obesity increases the risk of renal cell cancer both among men and women. We identified all studies examining body weight in relation to kidney cancer, available in MEDLINE from 1966 to 1998. The quantitative summary analysis was limited to studies assessing obesity as body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2)), or equivalent. The risk estimates and the confidence intervals were extracted from the individual studies, and a mixed effect weighted regression model was used. We identified 22 unique studies on each sex, and the quantitative analysis included 14 studies on men and women, respectively. The summary relative risk estimate was 1.07 (95% CI 1.05-1.09) per unit of increase in BMI (corresponding to 3 kg body weight increase for a subject of average height). We found no evidence of effect modification by sex. Our quantitative summary shows that increased BMI is equally strongly associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer among men and women.
  • Lambe, M., et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and risk of renal cell cancer a population-based study in Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - London, United Kingdom : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920. - 0007-0920 (Print) 0007-0920 (Linking) ; 86:9, s. 1425-1429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological findings indicate that hormonal influences may play a role in the etiology of renal cell cancer (RCC). The possible effect of childbearing remains enigmatic; while some investigators have reported a positive association between number of births and renal cell cancer risk, others have not. A case-control study, nested within a nation-wide Fertility Register covering Swedish women born 1925 and later, was undertaken to explore possible associations between parity and age at first birth and the risk of renal cell cancer. Among these women a total of 1465 cases of RCC were identified in the Swedish Cancer Register between 1958 and 1992 and information on the number of live childbirths and age at each birth was obtained by linkage to the Fertility Database. For each case, five age-matched controls were randomly selected from the same register. Compared to nulliparous women, ever-parous women were at a 40% increased risk of RCC (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.42; 95% CI 1.19-1.69). The corresponding OR for women of high parity (five or more live births) was 1.91 (95% CI 1.40-2.62). After controlling for age at first birth among parous women, each additional birth was associated with a 15% increase in risk (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.08-1.22). The observed positive association between parity and renal cell cancer risk is unlikely to be fully explained by uncontrolled confounding, but warrants further evaluation in large studies, with allowance for body mass index.
  • Abel, Frida, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Analyses of apoptotic regulators CASP9 and DFFA at 1P36.2, reveal rare allele variants in human neuroblastoma tumours.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 86:4, s. 596-604
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genes encoding Caspase-9 and DFF45 have both recently been mapped to chromosome region 1p36.2, that is a region alleged to involve one or several tumour suppressor genes in neuroblastoma tumours. This study presents an update contig of the 'Smallest Region of Overlap of deletions' in Scandinavian neuroblastoma tumours and suggests that DFF45 is localized in the region. The genomic organization of the human DFF45 gene, deduced by in-silico comparisons of DNA sequences, is described for the first time in this paper. In the present study 44 primary tumours were screened for mutation by analysis of the genomic sequences of the genes. In two out of the 44 tumours this detected in the DFFA gene one rare allele variant that caused a non-polar to a polar amino acid exchange in a preserved hydrophobic patch of DFF45. One case was hemizygous due to deletion of the more common allele of this polymorphism. Out of 194 normal control alleles only one was found to carry this variant allele, so in respect of it, no healthy control individual out of 97 was homozygous. Moreover, our RT-PCR expression studies showed that DFF45 is preferably expressed in low-stage neuroblastoma tumours and to a lesser degree in high-stage neuroblastomas. We conclude that although coding mutations of Caspase-9 and DFF45 are infrequent in neuroblastoma tumours, our discovery of a rare allele in two neuroblastoma cases should be taken to warrant further studies of the role of DFF45 in neuroblastoma genetics.
  • Akre [Fall], Katja, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Aspirin and risk for gastric cancer : a population-based case-control study in Sweden
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Edinburgh, United Kingdom : Churchill Livingstone. - 0007-0920. ; 84:7, s. 965-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with gastric mucosal damage, they might reduce the risk for gastric cancer. In a population-based case-control study in 5 Swedish counties, we interviewed 567 incident cases of gastric cancer and 1165 controls about their use of pain relievers. The cases were uniformly classified to subsite (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type and information collected on other known risk factors for gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori serology was tested in a subset of 542 individuals. Users of aspirin had a moderately reduced risk of gastric cancer compared to never users; odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.6-1.0). Gastric cancer risk fell with increasing frequency of aspirin use (P for trend = 0.02). The risk reduction was apparent for both cardia and non-cardia tumours but was uncertain for the diffuse histologic type. No clear association was observed between gastric cancer risk and non-aspirin NSAIDs or other studied pain relievers. Our finding lends support to the hypothesis that use of aspirin reduces the risk for gastric cancer.
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