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Sökning: L773:0007 0920 OR L773:1532 1827 > (2015-2019) > (2015)

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1.
  • Bamia, C., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:7, s. 1273-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background:Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.</p>
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2.
  • Besevic, Jelena, et al. (författare)
  • Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer survival in the EPIC cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 113:11, s. 1622-1631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which included 521 330 total participants (approximately 370 000 women) aged 25-70 years at recruitment from 1992 to 2000. Methods: Information on reproductive characteristics was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and multivariable models were adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumour stage, smoking status and stratified by study centre. Results: After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (+/- 3.2 s.d.) following EOC diagnosis, 511 (49.9%) of the 1025 women died from EOC. We observed a suggestive survival advantage in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users (ever vs never use, HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.03) and a significant survival benefit in long-term MHT users (&gt;= 5 years use vs never use, HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.50-0.99, P-trend = 0.04). We observed similar results for MHT use when restricting to serous cases. Other reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use and age at menarche or menopause, were not associated with EOC-specific mortality risk. Conclusions: Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible improvement in EOC survival in MHT users.</p>
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3.
  • Boldrup, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Downregulation of miRNA-424 : a sign of field cancerisation in clinically normal tongue adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:11, s. 1760-1765
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The overall survival for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is low and the search for early diagnostic and prognostic markers is thus essential. MicroRNAs have been suggested as potential prognostic and diagnostic candidates in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in general. Methods: On the basis of the known differences between sub-sites within the oral cavity, we investigated the expression and role of microRNA-424 in squamous cell carcinoma arising in tongue. MicroRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR in both tissue and plasma samples. Results: Levels of microRNA-424 were upregulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, but not in tumours originating from gingiva or floor of the mouth. Interestingly, microRNA-424 was downregulated in clinically normal tongue tissue next to tumour compared with completely healthy tongue, indicating that microRNA-424 could be a marker of field cancerisation in this tumour type. However, expression of microRNA-424 in a tongue-derived epithelial cell line revealed no significant changes in the expression profile of proteins and genes. Conclusions: Our patient data show that microRNA-424 alterations are a marker of field cancerisation specific for tongue tumourigenesis, which also could have a role in development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.</p>
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4.
  • Boldrup, L., et al. (författare)
  • Downregulation of miRNA-424 : a sign of field cancerisation in clinically normal tongue adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:11, s. 1760-1765
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The overall survival for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is low and the search for early diagnostic and prognostic markers is thus essential. MicroRNAs have been suggested as potential prognostic and diagnostic candidates in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in general. Methods: On the basis of the known differences between sub-sites within the oral cavity, we investigated the expression and role of microRNA-424 in squamous cell carcinoma arising in tongue. MicroRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR in both tissue and plasma samples. Results: Levels of microRNA-424 were upregulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, but not in tumours originating from gingiva or floor of the mouth. Interestingly, microRNA-424 was downregulated in clinically normal tongue tissue next to tumour compared with completely healthy tongue, indicating that microRNA-424 could be a marker of field cancerisation in this tumour type. However, expression of microRNA-424 in a tongue-derived epithelial cell line revealed no significant changes in the expression profile of proteins and genes. Conclusions: Our patient data show that microRNA-424 alterations are a marker of field cancerisation specific for tongue tumourigenesis, which also could have a role in development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.</p>
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5.
  • Li, K., et al. (författare)
  • An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe : the EPIC study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:7, s. 1257-1265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents. Methods: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202 206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Older age at menopause, longer duration of hormone replacement therapy, and higher body mass index were included as increasing ovarian cancer risk, whereas unilateral ovariectomy, longer duration of oral contraceptive use, and higher number of full-term pregnancies were decreasing risk. The discriminatory power (overall concordance index) of this model, as examined with five-fold cross-validation, was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57, 0.70). The ratio of the expected to observed number of ovarian cancer cases occurring in the first 5 years of follow-up was 0.90 (293 out of 324, 95% CI: 0.81-1.01), in general there was no evidence for miscalibration. Conclusion: Our ovarian cancer risk model containing only epidemiological data showed modest discriminatory power for a Western European population. Future studies should consider adding informative biomarkers to possibly improve the predictive ability of the model.</p>
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6.
  • Mu, Y., et al. (författare)
  • TGF beta-induced phosphorylation of Par6 promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:7, s. 1223-1231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The Par complex - comprising partition-defective 6 (Par6), Par3, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) - is crucial for cell polarisation, the loss of which contributes to cancer progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta)-induced phosphorylation of Par6 on the conserved serine 345 is implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer. Here we investigated the importance of phosphorylated Par6 in prostate cancer. Methods: We generated a p-Par6(345)-specific antibody and verified its specificity in vitro. Endogenous p-Par6(345) was analysed by immunoblotting in normal human prostate RWPE1 and prostate cancer (PC-3U) cells. Subcellular localisation of p-Par6(345) in migrating TGF beta-treated PC-3U cells was analysed by confocal imaging. Invasion assays of TGF beta-treated PC-3U cells were performed. p-Par6 expression was immunohistochemically analysed in prostate cancer tissues. Results: TGF beta induced Par6 phosphorylation on Ser345 and its recruitment to the leading edge of the membrane ruffle in migrating PC-3U cells, where it colocalised with aPKC zeta. The p-Par6-aPKC zeta complex is important for cell migration and invasion, as interference with this complex prevented prostate cancer cell invasion. High levels of activated Par6 correlated with aggressive prostate cancer. Conclusions: Increased p-Par6Ser(345) levels in aggressive prostate cancer tissues and cells suggest that it could be a useful novel biomarker for predicting prostate cancer progression.</p>
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7.
  • Mu, Yabing, et al. (författare)
  • TGF beta-induced phosphorylation of Par6 promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:7, s. 1223-1231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background:</p><p>The Par complex - comprising partition-defective 6 (Par6), Par3, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) - is crucial for cell polarisation, the loss of which contributes to cancer progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta)-induced phosphorylation of Par6 on the conserved serine 345 is implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer. Here we investigated the importance of phosphorylated Par6 in prostate cancer.</p><p>Methods:</p><p>We generated a p-Par6(345)-specific antibody and verified its specificity in vitro. Endogenous p-Par6(345) was analysed by immunoblotting in normal human prostate RWPE1 and prostate cancer (PC-3U) cells. Subcellular localisation of p-Par6(345) in migrating TGF beta-treated PC-3U cells was analysed by confocal imaging. Invasion assays of TGF beta-treated PC-3U cells were performed. p-Par6 expression was immunohistochemically analysed in prostate cancer tissues.</p><p>Results:</p><p>TGF beta induced Par6 phosphorylation on Ser345 and its recruitment to the leading edge of the membrane ruffle in migrating PC-3U cells, where it colocalised with aPKC zeta. The p-Par6-aPKC zeta complex is important for cell migration and invasion, as interference with this complex prevented prostate cancer cell invasion. High levels of activated Par6 correlated with aggressive prostate cancer.</p><p>Conclusions: Increased p-Par6Ser(345) levels in aggressive prostate cancer tissues and cells suggest that it could be a useful novel biomarker for predicting prostate cancer progression.</p>
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8.
  • Noor, Aisyah Mohd, et al. (författare)
  • Big Data the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 113:10, s. 1405-1412
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research.</p>
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9.
  • Ose, J., et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumour characteristics : results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:1, s. 162-166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Prospective studies on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk are inconclusive. Data suggest risk associations vary by tumour characteristics. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate IGF-I concentrations and EOC risk by tumour characteristics (n = 565 cases). Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. Results: We observed no association between IGF-I and EOC overall or by tumour characteristics. Conclusions: In the largest prospective study to date was no association between IGF-I and EOC risk. Pre-diagnostic serum IGF-I concentrations may not influence EOC risk.</p>
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10.
  • Sen, Abhijit, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 113:5, s. 840-847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered.</p><p>Methods: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.</p><p>Results: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.60-0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes.</p><p>Conclusions: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.</p>
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