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Sökning: L773:0007 0920 OR L773:1532 1827 > (2015-2019) > (2017)

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1.
  • Fortner, Renée T., et al. (författare)
  • Anti-Mullerian hormone and endometrial cancer a multi-cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 117:9, s. 1412-1418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The Mullerian ducts are the embryological precursors of the female reproductive tract, including the uterus; anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has a key role in the regulation of foetal sexual differentiation. Anti-Mullerian hormone inhibits endometrial tumour growth in experimental models by stimulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. To date, there are no prospective epidemiologic data on circulating AMH and endometrial cancer risk. Methods: We investigated this association among women premenopausal at blood collection in a multicohort study including participants from eight studies located in the United States, Europe, and China. We identified 329 endometrial cancer cases and 339 matched controls. AntiMullerian hormone concentrations in blood were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across tertiles and for a doubling of AMH concentrations (ORlog2). Subgroup analyses were performed by ages at blood donation and diagnosis, oral contraceptive use, and tumour characteristics. Results: Anti-Mullerian hormone was not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer overall (ORlog(2): 1.07 (0.99-1.17)), or with any of the examined subgroups. Conclusions: Although experimental models implicate AMH in endometrial cancer growth inhibition, our findings do not support a role for circulating AMH in the aetiology of endometrial cancer.</p>
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2.
  • Ghuan, Sundeep, et al. (författare)
  • Serum inflammatory markers and colorectal cancer risk and survival
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:10, s. 1358-1365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Inflammation has been linked with development of some cancers. We investigated systemic inflammation in relation to colorectal cancer incidence and subsequent survival using common serum inflammatory markers</p><p>Design: A cohort of men and women aged 20 years and older in greater Stockholm area with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin measured between 1986 and 1999 were included (n-325 599). A subset of these had baseline measurements of haptoglobin and leukocytes. Multivariable Cox regression was performed to assess risk of colorectal cancer by levels of inflammatory markers, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by circulating glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Overall and CRC-specific death following diagnosis were assessed as secondary outcomes.</p><p>Results: A total of 4764 individuals were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. A positive association between haptoglobin and colorectal cancer incidence was found (hazard ratio (HR): 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06-1.28). A positive association was also observed with leukocytes (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42). No evidence of association was noted between CRP and colorectal cancer risk. Higher risks of all-cause death were seen with haptoglobin and leukocytes levels. Higher haptoglobin levels were linked with an increased risk of colorectal cancer death (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01-1.41).</p><p>Conclusions: Prediagnostic systemic inflammation may impact colorectal cancer incidence and survival; therefore, prompting investigations linking inflammatory pathways preceding colorectal cancer with disease severity and progression.</p>
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3.
  • Guren, Tormod Kyrre, et al. (författare)
  • Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer final survival analyses and extended RAS data from the NORDIC-VII study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:10, s. 1271-1278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival analysis with BRAF and extended RAS mutational status, 5 years after the primary analysis.</p><p>Methods: A total of 566 patients were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population of the NORDIC-VII study. Updated survival status was obtained from 176 patients who were alive in the primary survival analyses. Samples from 223 tumours previously found to be KRAS (exon 2) and BRAF (V600E) wild-type, were re-analysed for KRAS (exons 3 and 4) and NRAS (exons 2-4) mutations.</p><p>Results: Including the extended RAS analyses, RAS and BRAF mutational status was available from 457 patients (81% of the ITT population). RAS was mutated in 46% and BRAF in 12% of the tumours. RAS and BRAF, if mutated, were negative prognostic factors. The updated analyses confirmed the finding of the primary report that cetuximab did not provide any additional benefit when added to FLOX in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy.</p><p>Conclusions: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical benefit, but the data suggested an effect of cetuximab monotherapy in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours in the NORDIC-VII cohort. The data were compatible with a negative interaction between cetuximab and the Nordic FLOX chemotherapy backbone.</p>
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4.
  • Lindemann, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Chemotherapy vs tamoxifen in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a phase III, randomised, multicentre trial (Ovaresist)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:4, s. 455-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Chemotherapy in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) aims for palliation and prolonging of progression-free survival (PFS). This study compares Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and efficacy between single-agent chemotherapy and tamoxifen in PROC. Methods: Patients with PROC were randomised (2 : 1) to chemotherapy (weekly paclitaxel 80 mg m(-2) or four weekly pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg m(-2)) or tamoxifen 40mg daily. The primary end point was HRQoL. Secondary end points were PFS by RECIST and overall survival (OS). Results: Between March 2002 and December 2007, 156 and 82 patients were randomised to chemotherapy and tamoxifen, respectively. In the chemotherapy arm, a significantly larger proportion of patients experienced a worsening in their social functioning. There was no difference in the proportion of patients experiencing improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms. Median PFS on tamoxifen was 8.3 weeks (95% CI, 8.0-10.4) compared with 12.7 weeks (95% CI, 9.0-16.3) on chemotherapy (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16-2.05; log-rank P = 0.003). There was no difference in OS between the treatment arms. Conclusions: Patients on chemotherapy had longer PFS but experienced more toxicity and poorer HRQoL compared with tamoxifen. Control over gastrointestinal symptoms was not better on chemotherapy. These data are important for patient counselling and highlight the need to incorporate HRQoL end points in studies of PROC.</p>
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5.
  • Lophatananon, Artitaya, et al. (författare)
  • Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk : results from the PRACTICAL consortium.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 117:5, s. 734-743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height &gt;180 cm are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height &lt;173 cm (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48). Genetic variants in the growth pathway gene showed an association with prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer and high-grade prostate cancer by 13% and 15%, respectively, in the highest score group as compared to lowest score group.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> There was no evidence of gene-environment interaction between height and the selected candidate SNPs.Our findings suggest a role of height in high-grade prostate cancer. The effect of genetic variants in the genes related to growth is seen in all cases and high-grade prostate cancer. There is no interaction between these two exposures.</p>
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6.
  • Martikainen, Miika, et al. (författare)
  • Oncolytic alphavirus SFV-VA7 efficiently eradicates subcutaneous and orthotopic human prostate tumours in mice
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 117:1, s. 51-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Despite recent therapeutic and diagnostic advances, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the Western world. Oncolytic viruses that replicate selectively in tumour cells represent a novel treatment candidate for these malignancies.</p><p>Methods: We analysed infectivity of avirulent Semliki Firest virus SFV-VA7 in human prostate cancer cell lines VCaP, LNCaP and 22Rv1 and in nonmalignant prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1. Therapeutic potency of SFV-VA7 was evaluated in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse LNCaP xenograft models.</p><p>Results: SFV-VA7 infected and killed the tested human prostate cancer cell lines irrespective of their hormone response status, while the nonmalignant prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 proved highly virus resistant. Notably, a single peritoneal dose of SFV-VA7 was sufficient to eradicate all subcutaneous and orthotopic LNCaP tumours.</p><p>Conclusions: Our results indicate that SFV-VA7 is a novel, promising therapeutic virus against prostate cancer warranting further testing in early clinical trials.</p>
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7.
  • Molina-Montes, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean diet and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:6, s. 811-820
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.</p><p>Methods: Over half a million participants from 10 European countries were followed up for over 11 years, after which 865 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted score without the alcohol component (arMED) to discount alcohol-related harmful effects. Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by age, sex and centre, and adjusted for energy intake, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake and diabetes status at recruitment, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with pancreatic cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).</p><p>Results: Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR high<em>vs</em> low adherence=0.99; 95% CI: 0.77–1.26, and HR per increments of two units in adherence to arMED=1.00; 95% CI: 0.94–1.06). There was no convincing evidence for heterogeneity by smoking status, body mass index, diabetes or European region. There was also no evidence of significant associations in analyses involving microscopically confirmed cases, plausible reporters of energy intake or other definitions of the MD pattern.</p><p>Conclusions: A high adherence to the MD is not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC study.</p>
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8.
  • Sclafani, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison between MRI and pathology in the assessment of tumour regression grade in rectal cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 117:10, s. 1478-1485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Limited data exist regarding the correlation between MRI tumour regression grade (mrTRG) and pathological TRG (pTRG) in rectal cancer. Methods: mrTRG and pTRG were compared in rectal cancer patients from two phase II trials (EXPERT and EXPERT-C). The agreement between radiologist and pathologist was assessed with the weighted k test while the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival outcomes. Results: One hundred ninety-one patients were included. Median time from completion of neoadjuvant treatment to pre-operative MRI and surgery was 4.1 weeks (interquartile range (IQR): 3.7-4.7) and 6.6 weeks (IQR: 5.9-7.6), respectively. Fair agreement was found between mrTRG and pTRG when regression was classified according to standard five-tier systems (kappa = 0.24) or modified three-tier systems (kappa = 0.25). Sensitivity and specificity of mrTRG 1-2 (complete/good radiological regression) for the prediction of pathological complete response was 74.4% (95% CI: 58.8-86.5) and 62.8% (95% CI: 54.5-70.6), respectively. Survival outcomes of patients with intermediate pathological regression (pTRG 2) were numerically better if complete/good regression was also observed on imaging (mrTRG 1-2) compared to poor regression (mrTRG 3-5) (5-year recurrence-free survival 76.9% vs 65.9%, P = 0.18; 5-year overall survival 80.6% vs 68.8%, P = 0.22). Conclusions: The agreement between mrTRG and pTRG is low and mrTRG cannot be used as a surrogate of pTRG. Further studies are warranted to assess the ability of mrTRG to identify pathological complete responders for the adoption of non-operative management strategies and to provide complementary prognostic information to pTRG for better risk-stratification after surgery.</p>
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9.
  • Stepien, Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating copper and zinc levels and risk of hepatobiliary cancers in Europeans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:5, s. 688-696
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Copper and zinc are essential micronutrients and cofactors of many enzymatic reactions that may be involved in liver-cancer development. We aimed to assess pre-diagnostic circulating levels of copper, zinc and their ratio (Cu/Zn) in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) and gall bladder and biliary tract (GBTC) cancers. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Serum zinc and copper levels were measured in baseline blood samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence in cancer cases (HCC n = 106, IHDB n = 34, GBTC n = 96) and their matched controls (1: 1). The Cu/Zn ratio, an indicator of the balance between the micronutrients, was computed. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI) were used to estimate cancer risk. Results: For HCC, the highest vs lowest tertile showed a strong inverse association for zinc (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.13-0.98, Ptrend = 0.0123), but no association for copper (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.45-2.46, Ptrend = 0.8878) in multivariable models. The calculated Cu/ Zn ratio showed a positive association for HCC (OR = 4.63; 95% CI: 1.41-15.27, Ptrend = 0.0135). For IHBC and GBTC, no significant associations were observed. Conclusions: Zinc may have a role in preventing liver-cancer development, but this finding requires further investigation in other settings.</p>
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10.
  • van Dam, Pieter-Jan, et al. (författare)
  • International consensus guidelines for scoring the histopathological growth patterns of liver metastasis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 117:10, s. 1427-1441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Liver metastases present with distinct histopathological growth patterns (HGPs), including the desmoplastic, pushing and replacement HGPs and two rarer HGPs. The HGPs are defined owing to the distinct interface between the cancer cells and the adjacent normal liver parenchyma that is present in each pattern and can be scored from standard haematoxylin-and-eosin-stained (H&amp;E) tissue sections. The current study provides consensus guidelines for scoring these HGPs.</p><p>Methods: Guidelines for defining the HGPs were established by a large international team. To assess the validity of these guidelines, 12 independent observers scored a set of 159 liver metastases and interobserver variability was measured. In an independent cohort of 374 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRCLM), the impact of HGPs on overall survival after hepatectomy was determined.</p><p>Results: Good-to-excellent correlations (intraclass correlation coefficient &gt;0.5) with the gold standard were obtained for the assessment of the replacement HGP and desmoplastic HGP. Overall survival was significantly superior in the desmoplastic HGP subgroup compared with the replacement or pushing HGP subgroup (<em>P</em>=0.006).</p><p>Conclusions: The current guidelines allow for reproducible determination of liver metastasis HGPs. As HGPs impact overall survival after surgery for CRCLM, they may serve as a novel biomarker for individualised therapies.</p>
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