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  • Braekeveldt, Noémie, et al. (författare)
  • Patient-derived xenograft models reveal intratumor heterogeneity and temporal stability in neuroblastoma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 0008-5472. ; 78:20, s. 5958-5969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and the Avatar, a single PDX mirroring an individual patient, are emerging tools in preclinical cancer research. However, the consequences of intratumor heterogeneity for PDX modeling of biomarkers, target identification, and treatment decisions remain underexplored. In this study, we undertook serial passaging and comprehensive molecular analysis of neuroblastoma orthotopic PDXs, which revealed strong intrinsic genetic, transcriptional, and phenotypic stability for more than 2 years. The PDXs showed preserved neuroblastoma-associated gene signatures that correlated with poor clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we captured spatial intratumor heterogeneity using ten PDXs from a single high-risk patient tumor. We observed diverse growth rates, transcriptional, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic profiles. PDX-derived transcriptional profiles were associated with diverse clinical characteristics in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. These data suggest that high-risk neuroblastoma contains elements of both temporal stability and spatial intratumor heterogeneity, the latter of which complicates clinical translation of personalized PDX-Avatar studies into preclinical cancer research.
  • Donia, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Acquired immune resistance follows complete tumor regression without loss of target antigens or IFNγ signaling
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 0008-5472. ; 77:17, s. 4562-4566
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer immunotherapy can result in durable tumor regressions in some patients. However, patients who initially respond often experience tumor progression. Here, we report mechanistic evidence of tumoral immune escape in an exemplary clinical case: a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed disease recurrence following an initial, unequivocal radiologic complete regression after T-cell–based immunotherapy. Functional cytotoxic T-cell responses, including responses to one mutant neoantigen, were amplified effectively with therapy and generated durable immunologic memory. However, these immune responses, including apparently effective surveillance of the tumor mutanome, did not prevent recurrence. Alterations of the MHC class I antigen-processing and presentation machinery (APM) in resistant cancer cells, but not antigen loss or impaired IFNγ signaling, led to impaired recognition by tumor-specific CD8þ T cells. Our results suggest that future immunotherapy combinations should take into account targeting cancer cells with intact and impaired MHC class I–related APM. Loss of target antigens or impaired IFNγ signaling does not appear to be mandatory for tumor relapse after a complete radiologic regression. Personalized studies to uncover mechanisms leading to disease recurrence within each individual patient are warranted.
  • Buckley, Patrick, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive DNA copy number profiling of meningioma using a chromosome 1 tiling path microarray identifies novel candidate tumor suppressor loci
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 65:7, s. 2653-2661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Meningiomas are common neoplasms of the meninges lining of the central nervous system. Deletions of 1p have been established as important for the initiation and/or progression of meningioma. The rationale of this array-CGH study was to characterize copy number imbalances of chromosome 1 in meningioma, using a full-coverage genomic microarray containing 2,118 distinct measurement points. In total, 82 meningiomas were analyzed, making this the most detailed analysis of chromosome 1 in a comprehensive series of tumors. We detected a broad range of aberrations, such as deletions and/or gains of various sizes. Deletions were the predominant finding and ranged from monosomy to a 3.5-Mb terminal 1p homozygous deletion. Although multiple aberrations were observed across chromosome 1, every meningioma in which imbalances were detected harbored 1p deletions. Tumor heterogeneity was also observed in three recurrent meningiomas, which most likely reflects a progressive loss of chromosomal segments at different stages of tumor development. The distribution of aberrations supports the existence of at least four candidate loci on chromosome 1, which are important for meningioma tumorigenesis. In one of these regions, our results already allow the analysis of a number of candidate genes. In a large series of cases, we observed an association between the presence of segmental duplications and deletion breakpoints, which suggests their role in the generation of these tumor-specific aberrations. As 1p is the site of the genome most frequently affected by tumor-specific aberrations, our results indicate loci of general importance for cancer development and progression.</p>
  • Jerby, Livnat, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic associations of reduced proliferation and oxidative stress in advanced breast cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 72:22, s. 5712-5720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aberrant metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, but whole metabolomic flux measurements remain scarce. To bridge this gap, we developed a novel metabolic phenotypic analysis (MPA) method that infers metabolic phenotypes based on the integration of transcriptomics or proteomics data within a human genome-scale metabolic model. MPA was applied to conduct the first genome-scale study of breast cancer metabolism based on the gene expression of a large cohort of clinical samples. The modeling correctly predicted cell lines' growth rates, tumor lipid levels, and amino acid biomarkers, outperforming extant metabolic modeling methods. Experimental validation was obtained in vitro. The analysis revealed a subtype-independent "go or grow" dichotomy in breast cancer, where proliferation rates decrease as tumors evolve metastatic capability. MPA also identified a stoichiometric tradeoff that links the observed reduction in proliferation rates to the growing need to detoxify reactive oxygen species. Finally, a fundamental stoichiometric tradeoff between serine and glutamine metabolism was found, presenting a novel hallmark of estrogen receptor (ER)(+) versus ER(-) tumor metabolism. Together, our findings greatly extend insights into core metabolic aberrations and their impact in breast cancer.</p>
  • Aguilo, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Long noncoding RNA, polycomb, and the ghosts haunting INK4b-ARF-INK4a expression.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 71:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Polycomb group proteins (PcG) function as transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The important role of PcG in mediating repression of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, by directly binding to the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), was recently shown. INK4b-ARF-INK4a encodes 3 tumor-suppressor proteins, p15(INK4b), p14(ARF), and p16(INK4a), and its transcription is a key requirement for replicative or oncogene-induced senescence and constitutes an important barrier for tumor growth. ANRIL gene is transcribed in the antisense orientation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster, and different single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to several diseases. Although lncRNA-mediated regulation of INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene is not restricted to ANRIL, both polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) and -2 (PRC2) interact with ANRIL to form heterochromatin surrounding the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, leading to its repression. This mechanism would provide an increased advantage for bypassing senescence, sustaining the requirements for the proliferation of stem and/or progenitor cell populations or inappropriately leading to oncogenesis through the aberrant saturation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus by PcG complexes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that link PcG function with ANRIL, which impose gene silencing to control cellular homeostasis as well as cancer development.</p>
  • Akhoondi, Shahab, et al. (författare)
  • FBXW7/hCDC4 is a general tumor suppressor in human cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 67:19, s. 9006-9012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major regulatory pathway of protein degradation and plays an important role in cellular division. Fbxw7 (or hCdc4), a member of the F-box family of proteins, which are substrate recognition components of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase SCF (Skpl-Cdc53/ Cullin-F-box-protein), has been shown to mediate the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several oncoproteins including cyclin El, c-Myc, c-Jun, and Notch. The oncogenic potential of Fbxw7 substrates, frequent allelic loss in human cancers, and demonstration that mutation of FBXW7 cooperates with p53 in mouse tumorigenesis have suggested that Fbxw7 could function as a tumor suppressor in human cancer. Here, we carry out an extensive genetic screen of primary tumors to evaluate the role of FBXW7 as a tumor suppressor in human tumorigenesis. Our results indicate that FBXW7 is inactivated by mutation in diverse human cancer types with an overall mutation frequency of ∼ 6%. The highest mutation frequencies were found in tumors of the bile duct (cholangio-carcinomas, 35%), blood (T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia, 31%), endometrium (9%), colon (9%), and stomach (6%). Approximately 43% of all mutations occur at two mutational "hotspots," which alter Arg residues (Arg<sup>465</sup> and Arg479) that are critical for substrate recognition. Furthermore, we show that Fbxw7<sup>Arg465</sup> hotspot mutant can abrogate wild-type Fbxw7 function through a dominant negative mechanism. Our study is the first comprehensive screen of FBXW7 mutations in various human malignancies and shows that FBXW7 is a general tumor suppressor in human cancer.</p>
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Leptin and soluble leptin receptor in risk of colorectal cancer in the European prospective investigation into Cancer and nutrition cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - Philadelphia, USA : American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 72:20, s. 5328-5337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Leptin, a peptide hormone produced primarily by the adipocytes, is hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) may regulate leptin's physiologic functions; however its relation to CRC risk is unknown. This study explored the association of leptin and sOB-R with risk of CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 1,129 incident CRC cases (713 colon, 416 rectal) were matched within risk sets to 1,129 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After multivariable adjustment including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and baseline leptin concentrations, sOB-R was strongly inversely associated with CRC (RR comparing the highest quintile vs. the lowest, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.76; P-trend = 0.0004) and colon cancer (RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28-0.63, P-trend = 0.0001); whereas no association was seen for rectal cancer (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.48-1.44, P-trend = 0.38). In contrast, leptin was not associated with risk of CRC (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.29, P-trend = 0.23). Additional adjustments for circulating metabolic biomarkers did not attenuate these results. These novel findings suggest a strong inverse association between circulating sOB-R and CRC risk, independent of obesity measures, leptin concentrations, and other metabolic biomarkers. Further research is needed to confirm the potentially important role of sOB-R in CRC pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 72(20); 5328-37. (C) 2012 AACR.</p>
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