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4.
  • Abrahamsson, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric Bypass Reduces Symptoms and Hormonal Responses in Hypoglycemia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 65:9, s. 2667-2675
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Gastric bypass (GBP) surgery, one of the most common bariatric procedures, induces weight loss and metabolic effects. The mechanisms are not fully understood, but reduced food intake and effects on gastrointestinal hormones are thought to contribute. We recently observed that GBP patients have lowered glucose levels and frequent asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes. Here, we subjected patients before and after undergoing GBP surgery to hypoglycemia and examined symptoms and hormonal and autonomic nerve responses. Twelve obese patients without diabetes (8 women, mean age 43.1 years [SD 10.8] and BMI 40.6 kg/m(2) [SD 3.1]) were examined before and 23 weeks (range 19-25) after GBP surgery with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (stepwise to plasma glucose 2.7 mmol/L). The mean change in Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Score during clamp was attenuated from 10.7 (6.4) before surgery to 5.2 (4.9) after surgery. There were also marked postsurgery reductions in levels of glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamine and the sympathetic nerve responses to hypoglycemia. In addition, growth hormone displayed a delayed response but to a higher peak level. Levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide rose during hypoglycemia but rose less postsurgery compared with presurgery. Thus, GBP surgery causes a resetting of glucose homeostasis, which reduces symptoms and neurohormonal responses to hypoglycemia. Further studies should address the underlying mechanisms as well as their impact on the overall metabolic effects of GBP surgery.</p>
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5.
  • Abrahamsson, Niclas, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric bypass reduces symptoms and hormonal responses to hypoglycemia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 65:9, s. 2667-2675
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Gastric bypass (GBP) surgery, one of the most common bariatric procedures, induces weight loss and metabolic effects. The mechanisms are not fully understood, but reduced food intake and effects on gastrointestinal hormones are thought to contribute. We recently observed that GBP patients have lowered glucose levels and frequent asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes. Here, we subjected patients before and after undergoing GBP surgery to hypoglycemia and examined symptoms and hormonal and autonomic nerve responses. Twelve obese patients without diabetes (8 women, mean age 43.1 years [SD 10.8] and BMI 40.6 kg/m(2) [SD 3.1]) were examined before and 23 weeks (range 19-25) after GBP surgery with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (stepwise to plasma glucose 2.7 mmol/L). The mean change in Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Score during clamp was attenuated from 10.7 (6.4) before surgery to 5.2 (4.9) after surgery. There were also marked postsurgery reductions in levels of glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamine and the sympathetic nerve responses to hypoglycemia. In addition, growth hormone displayed a delayed response but to a higher peak level. Levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide rose during hypoglycemia but rose less postsurgery compared with presurgery. Thus, GBP surgery causes a resetting of glucose homeostasis, which reduces symptoms and neurohormonal responses to hypoglycemia. Further studies should address the underlying mechanisms as well as their impact on the overall metabolic effects of GBP surgery.</p>
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6.
  • af Hällström-Reijonen, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • GAD65-specific autoantibodies enhance the presentation of an immunodominant T-cell epitope from GAD65
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 49:10, s. 1621-1626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GAD65 autoantibodies (GAD65Ab) are highly prevalent in type 1 diabetes, but their functional role in the pathogenesis of the disease and their relationship to T-cell reactivity to GAD65 is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that GAD65Ab modulate presentation of GAD65 to T-cells. T-cell hybridoma T33.1, which recognizes the GAD65 274-286 epitope in the context of HLA-DRB1*0401, was incubated with antigen-presenting cells exposed to recombinant human GAD65 alone or complexed with GAD65Ab+ or GAD65Ab- sera. Stimulation of the T33.1 hybridoma was greatly enhanced by multiple GAD65Ab+ sera. The enhancement effect was most prominent with sera from patients with high GAD65 autoantibody levels. Sera from GAD65Ab- subjects had no effect. The correlation between T-cell stimulation and GAD65Ab levels was not absolute, suggesting that other variables such as autoantibody recognition of different regions of GAD65 and variable effects on processing of the 274-286 epitope may contribute. Uptake of antibody-complexed GAD65 was Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated because the enhancement of presentation was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against FcR. Our results support the hypothesis that GAD65Ab modulate presentation of GAD65 to T-cells. Increased antigen uptake and heterogeneity in the autoantibody specificity may provide a mechanism for antibody-facilitated T-cell response influencing the progression of type 1 diabetes.
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7.
  • Al-Majdoub, Mahmoud, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolite profiling of LADA challenges the view of a metabolically distinct subtype
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 66:4, s. 806-814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) usually refers to GAD65 autoantibodies (GADAb)-positive diabetes with onset after 35 years of age and no insulin treatment within the first 6 months after diagnosis. However, it is not always easy to distinguish LADA fromtype 1 or type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined whether metabolite profiling could help to distinguish LADA (n = 50) from type 1 diabetes (n = 50) and type 2 diabetes (n = 50). Of 123 identified metabolites, 99 differed between the diabetes types. However, no unique metabolite profile could be identified for any of the types. Instead, the metabolome varied along a C-peptide-driven continuum from type 1 diabetes via LADA to type 2 diabetes. LADA was more similar to type 2 diabetes than to type 1 diabetes. In a principal component analysis, LADA patients overlapping with type 1 diabetes progressed faster to insulin therapy than those overlapping with type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, we could not find any unique metabolite profile distinguishing LADA from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rather, LADA was metabolically an intermediate of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with those patients closer to the former showing a faster progression to insulin therapy than those closer to the latter.
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8.
  • Alanentalo, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification and 3-D imaging of the insulitis-induced destruction of β-cells in murine type 1 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:7, s. 1756-1764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective: The aim of this study was to refine the information regarding the quantitative and spatial dynamics of infiltrating lymphocytes and remaining beta-cell volume during the progression of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model of the disease.</p><p>Research design and methods: Using an ex vivo technique, optical projection tomography (OPT), we quantified and assessed the 3D spatial development and progression of insulitis and beta-cell destruction in pancreas from diabetes prone NOD and non-diabetes prone congenic NOD.H-2b mice between 3 and 16 weeks of age.</p><p>Results: Together with results showing the spatial dynamics of the insulitis process we provide data of beta-cell volume distributions down to the level of the individual islets and throughout the pancreas during the development and progression of type 1 diabetes. Our data provide evidence for a compensatory growth potential of the larger insulin(+) islets during the later stages of the disease around the time point for development of clinical diabetes. This is in contrast to smaller islets, which appear less resistant to the autoimmune attack. We also provide new information on the spatial dynamics of the insulitis process itself, including its apparently random distribution at onset, the local variations during its further development, and the formation of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs at later phases of insulitis progression.</p><p>Conclusions: Our data provides a powerful tool for phenotypic analysis of genetic and environmental effects on type 1 diabetes etiology as well as for evaluating the potential effect of therapeutic regimes.</p>
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9.
  • Alenkvist, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Recruitment of Epac2A to Insulin Granule Docking Sites Regulates Priming for Exocytosis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:10, s. 2610-2622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Epac is a cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that mediates cAMP signaling in various types of cells, including -cells, where it is involved in the control of insulin secretion. Upon activation, the protein redistributes to the plasma membrane, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences are unclear. Using quantitative high-resolution microscopy, we found that cAMP elevation caused rapid binding of Epac2A to the -cell plasma membrane, where it accumulated specifically at secretory granules and rendered them more prone to undergo exocytosis. cAMP-dependent membrane binding required the high-affinity cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) and Ras association domains, but not the disheveled-Egl-10-pleckstrin domain. Although the N-terminal low-affinity CNB domain (CNB-A) was dispensable for the translocation to the membrane, it was critical for directing Epac2A to the granule sites. Epac1, which lacks the CNB-A domain, was recruited to the plasma membrane but did not accumulate at granules. We conclude that Epac2A controls secretory granule release by binding to the exocytosis machinery, an effect that is enhanced by prior cAMP-dependent accumulation of the protein at the plasma membrane.</p>
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10.
  • Amrutkar, Manoj, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase STK25 Ameliorates Metabolic Defects in a Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Model
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 64:8, s. 2791-2804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity is essential to identifying new pharmacological approaches to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a negative regulator of glucose and insulin homeostasis based on observations in myoblasts with acute depletion of STK25 and in STK25-overexpressing transgenic mice. Here, we challenged Stk25 knockout mice and wild-type littermates with a high-fat diet and showed that STK25 deficiency suppressed development of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, improved systemic glucose tolerance, reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increased insulin sensitivity. Stk25(-/-) mice were protected from diet-induced liver steatosis accompanied by decreased protein levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key regulator of both lipid oxidation and synthesis. Lipid accumulation in Stk25(-/-) skeletal muscle was reduced, and expression of enzymes controlling the muscle oxidative capacity (Cpt1, Acox1, Cs, Cycs, Ucp3) and glucose metabolism (Glut1, Glut4, Hk2) was increased. These data are consistent with our previous study of STK25 knockdown in myoblasts and reciprocal to the metabolic phenotype of Stk25 transgenic mice, reinforcing the validity of the results. The findings suggest that STK25 deficiency protects against the metabolic consequences of chronic exposure to dietary lipids and highlight the potential of STK25 antagonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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