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1.
  • Abadpour, S., et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of the prostaglandin D-2-GPR44/DP2 axis improves human islet survival and function
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : SPRINGER. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Inflammatory signals and increased prostaglandin synthesis play a role during the development of diabetes. The prostaglandin D-2 (PGD(2)) receptor, GPR44/DP2, is highly expressed in human islets and activation of the pathway results in impaired insulin secretion. The role of GPR44 activation on islet function and survival rate during chronic hyperglycaemic conditions is not known. In this study, we investigate GPR44 inhibition by using a selective GPR44 antagonist (AZ8154) in human islets both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic mice transplanted with human islets. Methods Human islets were exposed to PGD(2) or proinflammatory cytokines in vitro to investigate the effect of GPR44 inhibition on islet survival rate. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GPR44 inhibition were investigated in human islets exposed to high concentrations of glucose (HG) and to IL-1 beta. For the in vivo part of the study, human islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient diabetic mice and treated with 6, 60 or 100 mg/kg per day of a GPR44 antagonist starting from the transplantation day until day 4 (short-term study) or day 17 (long-term study) post transplantation. IVGTT was performed on mice at day 10 and day 15 post transplantation. After termination of the study, metabolic variables, circulating human proinflammatory cytokines, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were analysed in the grafted human islets. Results PGD(2) or proinflammatory cytokines induced apoptosis in human islets whereas GPR44 inhibition reversed this effect. GPR44 inhibition antagonised the reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by HG and IL-1 beta in human islets. This was accompanied by activation of the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta signalling pathway together with phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box O-1and upregulation of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 and HGF. Administration of the GPR44 antagonist for up to 17 days to diabetic mice transplanted with a marginal number of human islets resulted in reduced fasting blood glucose and lower glucose excursions during IVGTT. Improved glucose regulation was supported by increased human C-peptide levels compared with the vehicle group at day 4 and throughout the treatment period. GPR44 inhibition reduced plasma levels of TNF-alpha and growth-regulated oncogene-alpha/chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and increased the levels of HGF in human islets. Conclusions/interpretation Inhibition of GPR44 in human islets has the potential to improve islet function and survival rate under inflammatory and hyperglycaemic stress. This may have implications for better survival rate of islets following transplantation.
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2.
  • Abadpour, Shadab, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of the prostaglandin D2-GPR44/DP2 axis improves human islet survival and function
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer Nature. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 63:7, s. 1355-1367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Inflammatory signals and increased prostaglandin synthesis play a role during the development of diabetes. The prostaglandin D-2 (PGD(2)) receptor, GPR44/DP2, is highly expressed in human islets and activation of the pathway results in impaired insulin secretion. The role of GPR44 activation on islet function and survival rate during chronic hyperglycaemic conditions is not known. In this study, we investigate GPR44 inhibition by using a selective GPR44 antagonist (AZ8154) in human islets both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic mice transplanted with human islets. Methods Human islets were exposed to PGD(2) or proinflammatory cytokines in vitro to investigate the effect of GPR44 inhibition on islet survival rate. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GPR44 inhibition were investigated in human islets exposed to high concentrations of glucose (HG) and to IL-1 beta. For the in vivo part of the study, human islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient diabetic mice and treated with 6, 60 or 100 mg/kg per day of a GPR44 antagonist starting from the transplantation day until day 4 (short-term study) or day 17 (long-term study) post transplantation. IVGTT was performed on mice at day 10 and day 15 post transplantation. After termination of the study, metabolic variables, circulating human proinflammatory cytokines, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were analysed in the grafted human islets. Results PGD(2) or proinflammatory cytokines induced apoptosis in human islets whereas GPR44 inhibition reversed this effect. GPR44 inhibition antagonised the reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by HG and IL-1 beta in human islets. This was accompanied by activation of the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta signalling pathway together with phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box O-1and upregulation of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 and HGF. Administration of the GPR44 antagonist for up to 17 days to diabetic mice transplanted with a marginal number of human islets resulted in reduced fasting blood glucose and lower glucose excursions during IVGTT. Improved glucose regulation was supported by increased human C-peptide levels compared with the vehicle group at day 4 and throughout the treatment period. GPR44 inhibition reduced plasma levels of TNF-alpha and growth-regulated oncogene-alpha/chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and increased the levels of HGF in human islets. Conclusions/interpretation Inhibition of GPR44 in human islets has the potential to improve islet function and survival rate under inflammatory and hyperglycaemic stress. This may have implications for better survival rate of islets following transplantation.
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4.
  • Abels, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:9, s. 1928-1937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart−/− mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. Methods: CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes. Insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in isolated islets and in vivo in mice. Ca2+ oscillation patterns and exocytosis were studied in mouse islets. Results: We report an important role of CART in human islet function and glucose homeostasis in mice. CART was found to be expressed in human alpha and beta cells and in a subpopulation of mouse beta cells. Notably, CART expression was several fold higher in islets of type 2 diabetic humans and rodents. CART increased insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in human and mouse islets. Furthermore, CART increased beta cell exocytosis, altered the glucose-induced Ca2+ signalling pattern in mouse islets from fast to slow oscillations and improved synchronisation of the oscillations between different islet regions. Finally, CART reduced glucagon secretion in human and mouse islets, as well as in vivo in mice via diminished alpha cell exocytosis. Conclusions/interpretation: We conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
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5.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Acute suppression of VLDL(1) secretion rate by insulin is associated with hepatic fat content and insulin resistance
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 50:11, s. 2356-2365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overproduction of VLDL(1) seems to be the central pathophysiological feature of the dyslipidaemia associated with type 2 diabetes. We explored the relationship between liver fat and suppression of VLDL(1) production by insulin in participants with a broad range of liver fat content. METHODS: A multicompartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters of apolipoprotein B and TG in VLDL(1) and VLDL(2) after a bolus of [(2)H(3)]leucine and [(2)H(5)]glycerol during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp in 20 male participants: eight with type 2 diabetes and 12 control volunteers. The participants were divided into two groups with low or high liver fat. All participants with diabetes were in the high liver-fat group. RESULTS: The results showed a rapid drop in VLDL(1)-apolipoprotein B and -triacylglycerol secretion in participants with low liver fat during the insulin infusion. In contrast, participants with high liver fat showed no significant change in VLDL(1) secretion. The VLDL(1) suppression following insulin infusion correlated with the suppression of NEFA, and the ability of insulin to suppress the plasma NEFA was impaired in participants with high liver fat. A novel finding was an inverse response between VLDL(1) and VLDL(2) secretion in participants with low liver fat: VLDL(1) secretion decreased acutely after insulin infusion whereas VLDL(2) secretion increased. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Insulin downregulates VLDL(1) secretion and increases VLDL(2) secretion in participants with low liver fat but fails to suppress VLDL(1) secretion in participants with high liver fat, resulting in overproduction of VLDL(1). Thus, liver fat is associated with lack of VLDL(1) suppression in response to insulin.
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6.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Overproduction of large VLDL particles is driven by increased liver fat content in man
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 49:4, s. 755-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We determined whether hepatic fat content and plasma adiponectin concentration regulate VLDL(1) production. METHODS: A multicompartment model was used to simultaneously determine the kinetic parameters of triglycerides (TGs) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in VLDL(1) and VLDL(2) after a bolus of [(2)H(3)]leucine and [(2)H(5)]glycerol in ten men with type 2 diabetes and in 18 non-diabetic men. Liver fat content was determined by proton spectroscopy and intra-abdominal fat content by MRI. RESULTS: Univariate regression analysis showed that liver fat content, intra-abdominal fat volume, plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) correlated with VLDL(1) TG and ApoB production. However, only liver fat and plasma glucose were significant in multiple regression models, emphasising the critical role of substrate fluxes and lipid availability in the liver as the driving force for overproduction of VLDL(1) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Despite negative correlations with fasting TG levels, liver fat content, and VLDL(1) TG and ApoB pool sizes, adiponectin was not linked to VLDL(1) TG or ApoB production and thus was not a predictor of VLDL(1) production. However, adiponectin correlated negatively with the removal rates of VLDL(1) TG and ApoB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We propose that the metabolic effect of insulin resistance, partly mediated by depressed plasma adiponectin levels, increases fatty acid flux from adipose tissue to the liver and induces the accumulation of fat in the liver. Elevated plasma glucose can further increase hepatic fat content through multiple pathways, resulting in overproduction of VLDL(1) particles and leading to the characteristic dyslipidaemia associated with type 2 diabetes.
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10.
  • Albrechtsen, A., et al. (författare)
  • Exome sequencing-driven discovery of coding polymorphisms associated with common metabolic phenotypes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 56:2, s. 298-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human complex metabolic traits are in part regulated by genetic determinants. Here we applied exome sequencing to identify novel associations of coding polymorphisms at minor allele frequencies (MAFs) > 1% with common metabolic phenotypes. The study comprised three stages. We performed medium-depth (8x) whole exome sequencing in 1,000 cases with type 2 diabetes, BMI > 27.5 kg/m(2) and hypertension and in 1,000 controls (stage 1). We selected 16,192 polymorphisms nominally associated (p < 0.05) with case-control status, from four selected annotation categories or from loci reported to associate with metabolic traits. These variants were genotyped in 15,989 Danes to search for association with 12 metabolic phenotypes (stage 2). In stage 3, polymorphisms showing potential associations were genotyped in a further 63,896 Europeans. Exome sequencing identified 70,182 polymorphisms with MAF > 1%. In stage 2 we identified 51 potential associations with one or more of eight metabolic phenotypes covered by 45 unique polymorphisms. In meta-analyses of stage 2 and stage 3 results, we demonstrated robust associations for coding polymorphisms in CD300LG (fasting HDL-cholesterol: MAF 3.5%, p = 8.5 x 10(-14)), COBLL1 (type 2 diabetes: MAF 12.5%, OR 0.88, p = 1.2 x 10(-11)) and MACF1 (type 2 diabetes: MAF 23.4%, OR 1.10, p = 8.2 x 10(-10)). We applied exome sequencing as a basis for finding genetic determinants of metabolic traits and show the existence of low-frequency and common coding polymorphisms with impact on common metabolic traits. Based on our study, coding polymorphisms with MAF above 1% do not seem to have particularly high effect sizes on the measured metabolic traits.
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