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1.
  • Aveskogh, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for an early appearance of modern postswitch isotypes in mammalian evolution : cloning of IgE, IgG and IgA from the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 28:9, s. 2738-2750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In birds, reptiles and amphibians the IgY isotype exhibits the functional characteristics of both of IgG and IgE. Hence, the gene for IgY most likely duplicated some time during early mammalian evolution and formed the ancestor of present day IgG and IgE. To address the question of when IgY duplicated and formed two functionally distinct isotypes, and to study when IgG and IgA lost their second constant domains, we have examined the Ig expression in a non-placental mammal, the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum). Screening of an opossum spleen cDNA library revealed the presence of all three isotypes in marsupials. cDNA clones encoding the entire constant regions of opossum IgE (epsilon chain), IgG (gamma chain) and IgA (alpha chain) were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgY, IgA, IgE and IgG from various animal species showed that opossum IgE, IgG and IgA on the phylogenetic tree form branches clearly separated from their eutherian counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure found in eutherian IgE, IgG and IgA. Our findings indicate that all the major evolutionary changes in the Ig isotype repertoire, and in basic Ig structure that have occurred since the evolutionary separation of mammals from the early reptile lineages, occurred prior to the evolutionary separation of marsupials and placental mammals.
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2.
  • Johansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic control of sialadenitis versus arthritis in a NOD.QxB10.Q F2 cross.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1521-4141 .- 0014-2980. ; 32:1, s. 243-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops diabetes and sialadenitis. The sialadenitis is characterized by histopathological changes in salivary glands and functional deficit similar to Sjögren's syndrome. In humans, Sjögren's syndrome could be associated with other connective tissue disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study the genetic control of sialadenitis in mice was compared to that of arthritis. We have previously reported a NOD locus, identified in an F2 cross with the H2(q) congenic NOD (NOD.Q) and C57BL/10.Q (B10.Q) strains, that promoted susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis. The sialadenitis in NOD.Q showed a similar histological phenotype as in NOD, whereas no submandibular gland infiltration was found in B10.Q. The development of sialadenitis was independent of immunization with type II collagen and established arthritis. To identify the genetic control of sialadenitis, a gene segregation experiment was performed on an (NOD.QxB10.Q)F2 cross and genetic mapping of 353 F2 mice revealed one significant locus associated with sialadenitis on chromosome 4, LOD score 4.7. The NOD.Q allele-mediated susceptibility under a recessive inheritance pattern. The genetic control of sialadenitis seemed to be unique in comparison to diabetes and arthritis, as no loci associated with these diseases have been identified at the same location.
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3.
  • Svensson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative analysis of B cell-mediated myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathogenesis in B cell-deficient mice reveals an effect on demyelination.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1521-4141 .- 0014-2980. ; 32:7, s. 1939-1946
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have investigated the role of B cells in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using B cell-deficient mice muMT) and mice bearing the X-linked immunodeficiency (xid). The mice were immunized with MOG(1-125 )in complete Freund's adjuvant but without use of pertussis toxin. B cell-deficient muMT mice on different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/10 and DBA/1 strains) developed EAE, although with a reduced clinical severity. Histological analyses revealed decreased demyelination in the central nervous system while the influx of inflammatory cells was similar or only slightly reduced as compared to B cell-sufficient control mice. Xid mice on the DBA/1 background also developed disease with a reduced disease severity. The anti-MOG antibody response in the xid mice was decreased, while the T cell response to MOG was unaffected. We thus demonstrate that B cells are not critical for the development of MOG-induced EAE but contribute to the severity. The contribution of B cells to pathogenesis appears to be mainly through demyelination rather than through inflammation.
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4.
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5.
  • Bergqvist, Ingela, et al. (författare)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E2-2 is involved in T lymphocyte development
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 30:10, s. 2857-2863
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • E2A, HEB and E2-2 genes encode a group of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are structurally and functionally similar. Deletion of the genes encoding either of these proteins leads to early lethality and a block in B lymphocyte development. Evidence for a function in T lymphocyte development has, however, only been reported for E2A and HEB. To further elucidate the role of E2-2 at developmental stages that have proven difficult to study due to the early lethality phenotype of mice defective in E2-2, we generated and analyzed mice conditionally mutated in the E2-2 gene. These mice are mosaic with respect to E2-2 expression, consisting of cells with either one functional and one null mutated E2-2 allele or two null mutated alleles. Using this experimental model, we find that cells with a homozygous null mutated E2-2 gene are under-represented in B lymphocyte as well as T lymphocyte cell lineages as compared to other hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic cell lineages. Our data suggests that E2-2 deficiency leads to a partial block in both B and T lymphocyte development. The block in T cell development appears to occur at an early stage in differentiation, since skewing in the mosaicism is observed already in CD4+8+ double-positive thymocytes.
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6.
  • Degen, Winfried G. J., et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of recombinant human autoantibody fragments directed toward the autoantigenic U1-70K protein
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 30:10, s. 3029-3038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The U1-70K protein is specifically bound to stemloop I of the U1 small nuclear RNA contained in the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (U1 snRNP), which is involved in the splicing of pre-mRNA. All components of the U1 snRNP complex, including the U1-70K protein, are important autoantigens in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Here we describe for the first time the selection and characterization of recombinant human anti-U1-70K single chain autoantibody fragments (anti-hU1-70K scFv) from autoimmune patient-derived phage display antibody libraries. All scFv specifically recognize parts of the hU1-70K protein and its apoptotic 40-kDa cleavage product. In Western blotting assays a number of scFv preferentially recognize the 40-kDa apoptotic cleavage fragment of the U1-70K protein, suggesting a possible involvement of this apoptotic cleavage product in the autoimmune response of patients. The germline gene usage of these recombinant autoantibodies was also determined. Using several U1-70K deletion and point mutants of both human (h) and Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) origin, it was established that the U1-70K epitope that is recognized by the anti-hU1-70K scFv is located within the RNA binding domain.
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7.
  • Mårtensson, Annica, et al. (författare)
  • PEBP2 and c-myb sites crucial for lambda5 core enhancer activity in pre-B cells.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 31:11, s. 3165-3174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The lambda5 gene is expressed exclusively in precursor (pre-) B cells where its gene product, as part of the pre-B cell receptor, is crucial for the proliferation of these cells. Several DNA regions regulate the activity and expression pattern of the lambda5 gene. Amongst these is an enhancer, B(lambda5), located 5' of the gene. Here we analyze the lambda5 enhancer core, b(lambda5), which in earlier experiments was demonstrated to retain 50% of the enhancer activity, and show that this activity is restricted to pre-B cells. We identify a DNA element within b(lambda5), PEBP2(lambda5), which is essential for enhancer activity: mutation within this site dramatically reduces core enhancer activity in pre-B cells. The PEBP2(lambda5) site binds bacterially produced polyoma enhancer binding proteins (PEBP) (Runx/AML/CBFA). Furthermore, PEBP2 proteins present in nuclear extracts from murine pre-B cells bind to the PEBP2(lambda5) element. PEBP2 proteins in mature B cells also bind to the PEBP2(lambda5 )element, implying that if PEBP2 proteins are responsible for the stage-specific expression, they have to be non-activating or inhibiting in mature B cells. We also demonstrate that a described partner of PEBP2, c-myb, binds to a sequence termed myb(lambda5) located just upstream of the PEBP2(lambda5) site in the core enhancer. The myb(lambda5) element is also crucial for enhancer activity, since mutating the myb site reduces core enhancer activity to the same extent as mutating the PEBP2 site. Earlier reports have shown that c-myb is expressed at high levels in pre-B cell lines whereas its expression is down-regulated in more mature B cell lines. Thus, c-myb may be involved in determining the stage-specific expression of the lambda5 gene.
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8.
  • Aveskogh, Maria, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for an early appearence ofmodern post switch isotypes in mammalian evolution : Cloning of IgE, IgGand IgA from the marsupial Monodelphis domestica
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 28:9, s. 2738-2750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In birds, reptiles and amphibians the IgY isotype exhibits the functional characteristics of both of IgG and IgE. Hence, the gene for IgY most likely duplicated some time during early mammalian evolution and formed the ancestor of present day IgG and IgE. To address the question of when IgY duplicated and formed two functionally distinct isotypes, and to study when IgG and IgA lost their second constant domains, we have examined the Ig expression in a non-placental mammal, the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum). Screening of an opossum spleen cDNA library revealed the presence of all three isotypes in marsupials. cDNA clones encoding the entire constant regions of opossum IgE (ϵ chain), IgG (γ chain) and IgA (α chain) were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgY, IgA, IgE and IgG from various animal species showed that opossum IgE, IgG and IgA on the phylogenetic tree form branches clearly separated from their eutherian counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure found in eutherian IgE, IgG and IgA. Our findings indicate that all the major evolutionary changes in the Ig isotype repertoire, and in basic Ig structure that have occurred since the evolutionary separation of mammals from the early reptile lineages, occurred prior to the evolutionary separation of marsupials and placental mammals.
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9.
  • Lützelschwab, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of mouse mast cell protease-8, the first member of a novelsubfamily of mouse mast cell serine proteases, distinct from both theclassical chymases and tryptases
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 28:3, s. 1022-1033
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a recently developed PCR-based strategy, a cDNA encoding a novel mouse mast cell (MC) serine protease (MMCP-8) was isolated and characterized. The MMCP-8 mRNA contains an open reading frame of 247 amino acids (aa), divided into a signal sequence of 18 aa followed by a 2-aa activation peptide (Gly-Glu) and a mature protease of 227 aa. The mature protease has an M(r) of 25072, excluding post-translational modifications, a net positive charge of +12 and six potential N-glycosylation sites. MMCP-8 showed a high degree of homology with mouse granzyme B in the critical regions for determining substrate cleavage specificity, indicating that MMCP-8, similar to granzyme B, preferentially cleaves after Asp residues. A comparative analysis of the aa sequence of MMCP-8 with other hematopoietic serine proteases shows that it is more closely related to cathepsin G and T cell granzymes than to the MC chymases. We therefore conclude that MMCP-8 belongs to a novel subfamily of mouse MC proteases distinct from both the classical chymases and tryptases. Southern blot analysis of BALB/c genomic DNA indicated that only one MMCP-8 gene (or MMCP-8 like gene) is present in the mouse genome. Northern blot analysis of rodent hematopoietic cell lines revealed high levels of MMCP-8 mRNA in a mouse connective tissue MC-like tumor line. However, MMCP-8 mRNA could not be detected in mouse liver, intestine, lung or ears, indicating very low expression in normal tissues. Analysis of the expression of different MMCP in the tissues of Schistosoma mansoni-infected BALB/c mice showed a strong increase in MMCP-8 levels in the lungs but not in the intestines of infected animals, suggesting the presence of a novel subpopulation of MC in the lungs that expressed MMCP-8, either alone or in combination with MMCP-5 and carboxypeptidase A. The dramatic increase in MMCP-1 and MMCP-2 levels but not of MMCP-8 in the intestines of parasitized animals also shows that MMCP-8 is not expressed in mucosal MC in the mouse. This latter is in clear contrast to what has been observed in the rat where the MMCP-8 homologues, RMCP-8, -9 and -10, can be considered as true mucosal MC proteases.
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10.
  • Sakata, Naoki, et al. (författare)
  • Differential activation and regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases through the antigen receptor and CD40 in human B cells
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 29:9, s. 2999-3008
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In human B cells, antigen receptor ligation and CD40 ligation are known to activate the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, which in turn regulate many important B cell functions. We previously reported that antigen receptor ligation activated the ERK pathway whereas CD40 ligation activated the JNK/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway. Here, we demonstrate that another SAPK, p38/Hog1, is activated by both antigen receptor ligation or CD40 ligation in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell line and tonsillar B cells. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, partially inhibited ERK2 and p38 activation triggered through the B cell receptor whereas activation of JNK1 and p38 through CD40 was not affected. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated extracellular response kinase kinase (MEK), significantly inhibited ERK2 activation and partially inhibited p38 activation triggered by anti-IgM antibody treatment, but did not affect CD40-dependent signaling events. In addition, anti-IgM antibody-induced signaling pathways were shown to be PKC-dependent in contrast to the CD40-induced signaling pathways. Thus, the B cell receptor and CD40 recruit the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways by using different upstream effectors.
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