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1.
  • Ackerley, Rochelle, et al. (författare)
  • Cutaneous warmth, but not touch, increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity during a muscle fatigue hand-grip task
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - SPRINGER. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In homeostasis, somatosensory C fibre afferents are hypothesised to mediate input to the brain about interactions with external stimuli and sympathetic efference provides the output that regulates bodily functions. We aimed to test this hypothesis and whether different types of innocuous somatosensory input have differential effects. Healthy volunteers performed a muscle fatigue (hand-grip) task to exhaustion, which produces increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), as measured through microneurography. Participants completed the muscle fatigue task without concurrent cutaneous sensory stimulation (control) or we applied skin warming (heat pack) as a C fibre stimulation, slow brush stroking as C and A beta fibre stimulation, or vibration as A beta fibre stimulation, to the participants forearm. We also measured heart rate, the duration of the hand-grip task, and ratings of pain at the end of the task. Concurrent skin warming showed increased MSNA compared to the other conditions. Tactile stimuli (brushing, vibration) were not significantly different to the control (no intervention) condition. Warming increased the pain from the muscle contraction, whereas the tactile stimuli did not. We interpret the effect of warming on MSNA as providing relevant afferent information during muscle contraction, which needed to be counteracted via vasoconstriction to maintain homeostasis. Brushing and vibration were less homeostatically relevant stimuli for the muscle contraction and hence had no significant effect. The findings add sensory specificity to our current understanding of homeostatic regulation through somatosensory afferent and sympathetic efferent pathways.</p>
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2.
  • Ackerley, Rochelle, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Cutaneous warmth, but not touch, increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity during a muscle fatigue hand-grip task
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In homeostasis, somatosensory C fibre afferents are hypothesised to mediate input to the brain about interactions with external stimuli and sympathetic efference provides the output that regulates bodily functions. We aimed to test this hypothesis and whether different types of innocuous somatosensory input have differential effects. Healthy volunteers performed a muscle fatigue (hand-grip) task to exhaustion, which produces increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), as measured through microneurography. Participants completed the muscle fatigue task without concurrent cutaneous sensory stimulation (control) or we applied skin warming (heat pack) as a C fibre stimulation, slow brush stroking as C and A beta fibre stimulation, or vibration as A beta fibre stimulation, to the participant's forearm. We also measured heart rate, the duration of the hand-grip task, and ratings of pain at the end of the task. Concurrent skin warming showed increased MSNA compared to the other conditions. Tactile stimuli (brushing, vibration) were not significantly different to the control (no intervention) condition. Warming increased the pain from the muscle contraction, whereas the tactile stimuli did not. We interpret the effect of warming on MSNA as providing relevant afferent information during muscle contraction, which needed to be counteracted via vasoconstriction to maintain homeostasis. Brushing and vibration were less homeostatically relevant stimuli for the muscle contraction and hence had no significant effect. The findings add sensory specificity to our current understanding of homeostatic regulation through somatosensory afferent and sympathetic efferent pathways.
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3.
  • Ahlen, Elsa, et al. (författare)
  • Learning to read upside-down: a study of perceptual expertise and its acquisition
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 232:3, s. 1025-1036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Reading is an expert visual and ocular motor function, learned mainly in a single orientation. Characterizing the features of this expertise can be accomplished by contrasts between reading of normal and inverted text, in which perceptual but not linguistic factors are altered. Our goal was to examine this inversion effect in healthy subjects reading text, to derive behavioral and ocular motor markers of perceptual expertise in reading, and to study these parameters before and after training with inverted reading. Seven subjects engaged in a 10-week program of 30 half-hour sessions of reading inverted text. Before and after training, we assessed reading of upright and inverted single words for response time and word-length effects, as well as reading of paragraphs for time required, accuracy, and ocular motor parameters. Before training, inverted reading was characterized by long reading times and large word-length effects, with eye movements showing more and longer fixations, more and smaller forward saccades, and more regressive saccades. Training partially reversed many of these effects in single word and text reading, with the best gains occurring in reading aloud time and proportion of regressive saccades and the least change in forward saccade amplitude. We conclude that reading speed and ocular motor parameters can serve as markers of perceptual expertise during reading and that training with inverted text over 10 weeks results in significant gains of reading expertise in this unfamiliar orientation. This approach may be useful in the rehabilitation of patients with hemianopic dyslexia.</p>
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4.
  • Albert, Frederic, et al. (författare)
  • Proprioceptive feedback in humans expresses motor invariants during writing.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 164:2, s. 242-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Proprioceptive feedback from populations of muscle spindle afferents feeds the brain with information relating to the instantaneous velocity and direction of ongoing movements. In this paper, we investigate whether the invariant relationship between the velocity and curvature of a trajectory, i.e. the two-thirds power law, is reflected in this muscle spindle feedback. Sixty unitary muscle spindle afferents from six ankle muscle groups were recorded using intraneural microelectrodes during imposed "writing-like" movements. The movements had kinematic parameters obeying the two-thirds power law and were imposed so that the tip of the foot followed trajectories forming four different letters and six numbers. The responses of the muscle spindle afferent populations were analysed using the population vector model. The results demonstrate that the neuronal trajectories attained from populations of muscle spindles clearly depict the path and kinematic parameters and express the movement invariants, i.e. the trajectory segmentation into units of action and the two-thirds power law. The central vs peripheral origin of such constraints involved in the motor system is discussed.</p>
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5.
  • Albert, Frederic, et al. (författare)
  • The Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when returned to the subject via muscle tendon vibration
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 172:2, s. 163-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The aim of the present study was to further investigate the contribution of primary muscle spindle feedback to proprioception and higher brain functions, such as movement trajectory recognition. For this purpose, complex illusory movements were evoked in subjects by applying patterns of muscle tendon vibration mimicking the natural Ia afferent pattern. Ia afferent messages were previously recorded using microneurographic method from the six main muscle groups acting on the ankle joint during imposed "writing like" movements. The mean Ia afferent pattern was calculated for each muscle group and used as a template to pilot each vibrator. Eleven different vibratory patterns were applied to ten volunteers. Subjects were asked both to copy the perceived illusory movements by hand on a digitizing tablet and to recognize and name the corresponding graphic symbol. The results show that the Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when it is applied to the subject via the appropriate pattern of muscle tendon vibration. The geometry and the kinematic parameters of the imposed and illusory movements are very similar and the so-called "two-thirds power law" is present in the reproduction of the vibration-induced illusory movements. Vibrations within the "natural" frequency range of Ia fibres firing (around 30 Hz) produce clear illusions of movements in all the tested subjects. In addition, increasing the mean frequency of the vibration patterns resulted in a linear increase in the size of the illusory movements. Lastly, the subjects were able to recognize and name the symbols evoked by the vibration-induced primary muscle spindle afferent patterns in 83% of the trials. These findings suggest that the "proprioceptive signature" of a given movement is associated with the corresponding "perceptual signature". The neural mechanisms possibly underlying the sensory to perceptual transformation are discussed in the general framework of "the neuronal population vector model".</p>
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6.
  • Alstermark, Bror, et al. (författare)
  • Anders Lundberg (1920-2009).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 200:3-4, s. 193-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <p>Anders Lundberg was one of the founding editorial board members for EBR when it began its life in 1976 under the editorship of John Eccles. He was also one of the most prolific contributors to the journal with a total of 49 papers, including a series of 16 on the topic of “integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat”. He continued as an editor of the journal until volume 16 when he persuaded his younger colleague Hans Hultborn to take his place. Hans is one of the authors of the obituary. –John Rothwell</p>
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7.
  • Alt Murphy, Margit, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Perceptuo-motor planning during functional reaching after stroke
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819. ; 235:11, s. 3295-3306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In healthy young adults, reaching movements are planned such that the initial grasp position on the object is modulated based on the final task goal. This perceptuo-motor coupling has been described as the end-state comfort effect. This study aimed to determine the extent to which visuo-perceptual and motor deficits, but not neglect, due to stroke impact end-state comfort measured as the grasp-height effect. Thirty-four older adults (17 controls, 17 chronic stroke) performed a functional goal-directed two-sequence task with each arm, consisting of reaching and moving a cylindrical object (drain plunger) from an initial to four target platform heights, standardized to body height, in a block randomized sequence. Arm motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment) and visual-perceptual deficits (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test) were assessed in stroke subjects, and arm and trunk kinematics were assessed in all subjects. The primary outcome measure of the grasp-height effect was the relationship between the grasp heights used at the home position and the final target platform heights. Mixed model analysis was used for data analysis. The grasp-height effect was present in all participants, but decreased in stroke subjects with visuo-perceptual impairments compared to controls. In stroke subjects with sensorimotor impairments alone, indicated by altered kinematics, the grasp-height effect was comparable to controls. This first study examining the grasp-height effect in individuals with stroke provides new knowledge of the impact of visuo-perceptual deficits on movement planning and execution, which may assist clinicians in selecting more effective treatment strategies to improve perceptuo-motor skills and enhance motor recovery.
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8.
  • Andersson, G, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a GABA-mediated cerebellar inhibition of the inferior olive in the cat
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - Springer. - 0014-4819. ; 72:3, s. 450-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Climbing fibres were activated by peripheral nerve stimulation at 'high' frequencies (greater than 3 Hz) for 15-25 s and then at 0.9 Hz for about 1 min. The high frequency activation induced a post-conditioning inhibition, lasting up to about 1 min, of climbing fibre responses recorded from the cerebellar surface. 2. Electrolytic lesions were made in the superior cerebellar peduncle (brachium conjunctivum). After the lesion, the post-conditioning inhibition was completely eliminated. 3. Injections of the GABA-receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide into the inferior olive reversibly blocked the post-conditioning inhibition. 4. The results support the hypothesis proposed by Andersson and Hesslow (1987a), that post-conditioning inhibition is mediated by a GABA-ergic interposito-olivary pathway.
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9.
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10.
  • Andrew, Churchill, et al. (författare)
  • Vision of the hand and environmental context in human prehension
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 134:1, s. 81-89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Previous findings on the role of visual contact with the hand in the control of reaching and grasping have been contradictory. Some studies have shown that such contact is largely irrelevant, while more recent ones have emphasised its importance. In contrast, information arising from the surrounding environment has received relatively little attention in the study of prehensile actions. In order to identify the roles of both sources of information, we made kinematic comparisons between three conditions. In the first, reaching was performed in a dimly lit room and compared with a second condition in which reaches in the dark, but with the thumb and first finger illuminated, were made to a luminous object. This contrast allows the effects of environmental context to be identified. A comparison between the second and a third condition, in which both vision of the hand and the environment was removed, but the object was still visually available, enabled the assessment of how and when vision of the hand plays a role. Removing environmental cues had effects both early and late in the reach, while vision of the hand was only crucial in the period after peak deceleration. In addition, removal of both sources of information resulted in larger grip apertures. Differences and similarities between our findings and those of other studies are discussed, as is the ongoing debate about the relative importance of visual feedback of the hand in the control and co-ordination of prehensile actions. We conclude with suggestions for further research based on the set-up used in the present study.</p>
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