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  • Doorakkers, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a Western population
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gut. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0017-5749. ; 67:12, s. 2092-2096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori is a strong risk factor for non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess whether the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma decreases after eradication treatment for H. pylori in a Western population. DESIGN: This was a nationwide, population-based cohort study in Sweden in 2005-2012. Data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry provided information on H. pylori eradication treatment, whereas information concerning newly developed gastric adenocarcinoma was retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry. The risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma in individuals who had received H. pylori eradication treatment was compared with the background population of the corresponding age, sex and calendar year distribution, yielding standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: During the follow-up of 95 176 individuals who had received eradication treatment (351 018 person-years at risk), 75 (0.1%) developed gastric adenocarcinoma and 69 (0.1%) developed non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma. The risk of gastric adenocarcinoma decreased over time after eradication treatment to levels below that of the corresponding background population. The SIRs were 8.65 (95% CI 6.37 to 11.46) for 1-3 years, 2.02 (95% CI 1.25 to 3.09) for 3-5 years and 0.31 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.67) for 5-7.5 years after eradication treatment. When restricted to non-cardia adenocarcinoma, the corresponding SIRs were 10.74 (95% CI 7.77 to 14.46), 2.67 (95% CI 1.63 to 4.13) and 0.43 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.93). CONCLUSION: Eradication treatment for H. pylori seems to counteract the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma in this Western population.
  • Ness-Jensen, Eivind, et al. (författare)
  • All-cause and cancer-specific mortality in GORD in a population-based cohort study (the HUNT study)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gut. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0017-5749. ; 67:2, s. 209-U252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a public health concern which could have associated oesophageal complications, including adenocarcinoma, and possibly also head-and-neck and lung cancers. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reflux increases all-cause and cancer-specific mortalities in an unselected cohort. DESIGN: The Nord-Trondelag health study (HUNT), a Norwegian population-based cohort study, was used to identify individuals with and without reflux in 1995-1997 and 2006-2008, with follow-up until 2014. All-cause mortality and cancer-specific mortality were assessed from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry and Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate HRs with 95% CIs for mortality with adjustments for potential confounders. RESULTS: We included 4758 participants with severe reflux symptoms and 51 381 participants without reflux symptoms, contributing 60 323 and 747 239 person-years at risk, respectively. Severe reflux was not associated with all-cause mortality, overall cancer-specific mortality or mortality in cancer of the head-and-neck or lung. However, for men with severe reflux a sixfold increase in oesophageal adenocarcinoma-specific mortality was found (HR 6.09, 95% CI 2.33 to 15.93) and the mortality rate was 0.27 per 1000 person-years. For women, the corresponding mortality was not significantly increased (HR 3.68, 95% CI 0.88 to 15.27) and the mortality rate was 0.05 per 1000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with severe reflux symptoms do not seem to have increased all-cause mortality or overall cancer-specific mortality. Although the absolute risk is small, individuals with severe reflux symptoms have a clearly increased oesophageal adenocarcinoma-specific mortality.
  • Van Guelpen, B, et al. (författare)
  • Low folate levels may protect against colorectal cancer.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 1458-3288 .- 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 55:10, s. 1461-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary folate is believed to protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, few studies have addressed the role of circulating levels of folate. The aim of this study was to relate prediagnostic plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms to the risk of developing CRC. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 226 cases and 437 matched referents from the population based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. RESULTS: We observed a bell-shaped association between plasma folate concentrations and CRC risk; multivariate odds ratio for middle versus lowest quintile 2.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-3.56). In subjects with follow up times greater than the median of 4.2 years however, plasma folate concentrations were strongly positively related to CRC risk; multivariate odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile 3.87 (95% CI 1.52-9.87; p trend = 0.007). Homocysteine was not associated with CRC risk. Multivariate odds ratios for the MTHFR polymorphisms were, for 677 TT versus CC, 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.85; p trend = 0.062), and for 1298 CC versus AA, 1.62 (95% CI 0.94-2.81; p trend = 0.028). Interaction analysis suggested that the result for 1298A>C may have been largely due to linkage disequilibrium with 677C>T. The reduced CRC risk in 677 TT homozygotes was independent of plasma folate status. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a decreased CRC risk in subjects with low folate status. This possibility of a detrimental component to the role of folate in carcinogenesis could have implications in the ongoing debate in Europe concerning mandatory folate fortification of foods.
  • Agrawal, Manasi, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases among first-generation and second-generation immigrants in Denmark : a population-based cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 70:6, s. 1037-1043
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to estimate the relative risk of IBD among first-generation and second-generation immigrants in Denmark compared with native Danes.DESIGN: Using national registries, we established a cohort of Danish residents between 1977 and 2018. Cohort members with known country of birth were followed for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) served as measures of relative risk and were calculated by log-linear Poisson regression, using rates among native Danes as reference, stratified by IBD risk in parental country of birth, and among first-generation immigrants by age at immigration and duration of stay in Denmark.RESULTS: Among 8.7 million Danes, 4156 first-generation and 898 second-generation immigrants were diagnosed with CD or UC. Overall, comparing first-generation immigrants with native Danes, the IRR was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.84) for CD and 0.74 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.77) for UC. The IRR of IBD increased with ≥20 years stay in Denmark. The IRR of CD increased with immigration at ≥40 years of age. Comparing second-generation immigrants with native Danes, the IRR of IBD was 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.04). There was significant interaction with sex, with higher IRR of IBD in male than in female immigrants.CONCLUSION: Relative to native Danish men and women, IBD risk among first-generation immigrants was lower, reflected the risk in their parental country of birth and increased with ≥20 years stay in Denmark. For second-generation immigrants, relative risk of IBD was lower only among women. These complex patterns suggest the role of environmental IBD risk factors.
  • Anlauf, M, et al. (författare)
  • Allelic deletion of the MEN1 gene in duodenal gastrin and somatostatin cell neoplasms and their precursor lesions.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 56:5, s. 637-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-associated Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) show multifocal duodenal gastrinomas and precursor lesions.AIMS: To test these lesions for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the MEN1 gene locus on chromosome 11q13, and to investigate whether the MEN1-related endocrine cell changes also involved somatostatin cells.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissue specimens from six patients with MEN1 and ZES were analysed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. LOH analysis was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), using probes containing the MEN1 gene locus and the centromere 11 (C11) region. For simultaneous analysis of hormones and allelic deletions, a combined FISH/immunofluorescence protocol was established.RESULTS: 28 of a total of 33 duodenal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) were gastrin-producing tumours; 13/28 (46.4%) revealed LOH on 11q13 and/or C11. Five of the NETs were somatostatin-expressing tumours, two revealing LOH. Allelic loss was detected in tumours as small as 300 microm (gastrin) and 400 microm (somatostatin) in diameter. The gastrin-producing tumours showed different deletion/retention patterns. Hyperplastic somatostatin cell lesions, similar to those of the gastrin cells, were present in all patients. The hyperplastic lesions of both cell lines consistently retained both 11q13 alleles.CONCLUSIONS: Allelic deletion of the MEN1 gene may reflect a pivotal event in the development of multifocal gastrin and somatostatin cell neoplasms in the duodenum of patients with MEN1. The observation of distinct deletion patterns in small synchronous tumours supports the concept that each gastrin-producing tumour in an individual MEN1 patient arises from an independent cell clone.
  • Arber, N, et al. (författare)
  • Sporadic adenomatous polyp regression with exisulind is effective but toxic : A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, dose-response study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 55:3, s. 367-373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aim: A 12 month, multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, phase 3, dose-response study was carried out. Exisulind inhibits tumour growth by induction of apoptosis. The aim of our study was to investigate if exisulind induces regression of sporadic colonic adenomas. Patients and methods: A 12 month multicentre randomised double blind placebo controlled phase 3 dose response study was carried out. At baseline colonoscopy, left sided polyps (3-10 mm) were tattooed, measured, and left in place. Subjects received exisulind 200 or 400 mg, or placebo daily. Follow up sigmoidoscopy was performed after six months, and removal of any remaining polyps at the 12 month colonoscopy. The primary efficacy variable was change in polyp size from baseline. Results: A total of 281 patients were enrolled and randomised, 155 (55%) fulfilled the criteria for the intention to treat (ITT) analysis and 114 (41%) fulfilled the criteria for the efficacy evaluation analysis (patients who underwent the 12 month colonoscopy). The decrease in median polyp size was significantly greater (p = 0.03) in patients who received exisulind 400 mg (-10 mm2) compared with those who received placebo (-4 mm2). Complete or partial response was significantly higher in the exisulind 400 mg group (54.6%) compared with the placebo group (30.2%), and disease progression was significantly lower (6.1% v 27.9%) (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Increased liver enzymes (8.4%) and abdominal pain (14.7%) were also reported at a greater frequency in the exisulind 400 mg group. Conclusion: Exisulind caused significant regression of sporadic adenomatous polyps but was associated with more toxicity. This model of polyp regression, short in its term and involving a comparatively small patient sample size, may be the best available tool to assess a therapeutic regimen before launching into large preventive clinical studies.
  • Arnold, Melina, et al. (författare)
  • The burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations : a systematic review and global assessment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 63:1, s. 64-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Stomach cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, especially in developing countries. Incidence has been associated with poverty and is also reported to disproportionately affect indigenous peoples, many of whom live in poor socioeconomic circumstances and experience lower standards of health. In this comprehensive assessment, we explore the burden of stomach cancer among indigenous peoples globally.Design The literature was searched systematically for studies on stomach cancer incidence, mortality and survival in indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, Maori in New Zealand, indigenous peoples from the circumpolar region, native Americans and Alaska natives in the USA, and the Mapuche peoples in Chile. Data from the New Zealand Health Information Service and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to estimate trends in incidence.Results Elevated rates of stomach cancer incidence and mortality were found in almost all indigenous peoples relative to corresponding non-indigenous populations in the same regions or countries. This was particularly evident among Inuit residing in the circumpolar region (standardised incidence ratios (SIR) males: 3.9, females: 3.6) and in Maori (SIR males: 2.2, females: 3.2). Increasing trends in incidence were found for some groups.Conclusions We found a higher burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations globally, and rising incidence in some indigenous groups, in stark contrast to the decreasing global trends. This is of major public health concern requiring close surveillance and further research of potential risk factors. Given evidence that improving nutrition and housing sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes could reduce stomach cancer rates, policies which address these initiatives could reduce inequalities in stomach cancer burden for indigenous peoples.
  • Axelrad, Jordan E., et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and risk of small bowel cancer : a binational population-based cohort study from Denmark and Sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 70:2, s. 297-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with increased risk of small bowel cancer (SBC), but previous studies have been small. We aimed to examine the risk of incident SBC and death from SBC in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).DESIGN: In a binational, population-based cohort study from Sweden and Denmark of patients with IBD during 1969-2017 and matched reference individuals from the general population, we evaluated the risk of incident SBC and death from SBC. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs).RESULTS: We identified 161 896 individuals with IBD (CD: 47 370; UC: 97 515; unclassified IBD: 17 011). During follow-up, 237 cases of SBC were diagnosed in patients with IBD (CD: 24.4/100 000 person-years; UC: 5.88/100 000 person-years), compared with 640 cases in reference individuals (2.81/100 000 person-years and 3.32/100 000 person-years, respectively). This corresponded to one extra case of SBC in 385 patients with CD and one extra case in 500 patients with UC, followed up for 10 years. The aHR for incident SBC was 9.09 (95% CI 7.34 to 11.3) in CD and 1.85 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.39) in UC. Excluding the first year after an IBD diagnosis, the aHRs for incident SBC decreased to 4.96 in CD and 1.69 in UC. Among patients with CD, HRs were independently highest for recently diagnosed, childhood-onset, ileal and stricturing CD. The relative hazard of SBC-related death was increased in both patients with CD (aHR 6.59, 95% CI 4.74 to 9.15) and patients with UC (aHR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.32).CONCLUSION: SBC and death from SBC were more common in patients with IBD, particularly among patients with CD, although absolute risks were low.
  • Bahram, Mohammad (författare)
  • Antibiotics-induced monodominance of a novel gut bacterial order
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 68, s. 1781-1790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The composition of the healthy human adult gut microbiome is relatively stable over prolonged periods, and representatives of the most highly abundant and prevalent species have been cultured and described. However, microbial abundances can change on perturbations, such as antibiotics intake, enabling the identification and characterisation of otherwise low abundant species.Design Analysing gut microbial time-series data, we used shotgun metagenomics to create strain level taxonomic and functional profiles. Community dynamics were modelled postintervention with a focus on conditionally rare taxa and previously unknown bacteria.Results In response to a commonly prescribed cephalosporin (ceftriaxone), we observe a strong compositional shift in one subject, in which a previously unknown species, (U)Borkfalki ceftriaxensis, was identified, blooming to 92% relative abundance. The genome assembly reveals that this species (1) belongs to a so far undescribed order of Firmicutes, (2) is ubiquitously present at low abundances in at least one third of adults, (3) is opportunistically growing, being ecologically similar to typical probiotic species and (4) is stably associated to healthy hosts as determined by single nucleotide variation analysis. It was the first coloniser after the antibiotic intervention that led to a long-lasting microbial community shift and likely permanent loss of nine commensals.Conclusion The bloom of B-U. ceftriaxensis and a subsequent one of Parabacteroides distasonis demonstrate the existence of monodominance community states in the gut. Our study points to an undiscovered wealth of low abundant but common taxa in the human gut and calls for more highly resolved longitudinal studies, in particular on ecosystem perturbations.
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