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1.
  • Andersson, Gustav, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal factors and pancreatic cancer risk in women : The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 143:1, s. 52-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The incidence of pancreatic cancer is leveling between sexes. Smoking, high age and heredity are established risk factors, but evidence regarding the influence of hormonal factors is unclear. In this study, we investigated the associations of reproductive factors, use of oral contraceptives (OC) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with pancreatic cancer risk in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, population-based cohort encompassing 17,035 women. Up until 31 December 2015, 110 women were identified with incident pancreatic cancer through the Swedish Cancer Registry. Higher age at menarche was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted [hazard ratio] HR = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.32, and fully adjusted HR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.04–1.32). Ever use of OC was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk but ever use of HRT was significantly associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer (age-adjusted HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.23–0.97, and fully adjusted HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.23–1.00), in particular use of estrogen-only regimen (age-adjusted HR = 0.21; 95% CI 0.05–0.87 and fully adjusted HR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.90). Age at menopause or first childbirth, parity and breastfeeding history were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Collectively, these findings suggest a protective role of female hormones against pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed, and potential modifying genetic factors and indirect hazardous effects of smoking should also be considered.
2.
  • Araghi, Marzieh, et al. (författare)
  • Use of moist oral snuff (snus) and pancreatic cancer : Pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 141:1, s. 687-693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While smoking is a well-established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the effect of smokeless tobacco is less well understood. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess the association between Swedish snus use and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 424,152 male participants from nine cohort studies were followed up for risk of pancreatic cancer through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding factors. During 9,276,054 person-years of observation, 1,447 men developed pancreatic cancer. Compared to never-snus use, current snus use was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83-1.11) after adjustment for smoking. Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer in men. Tobacco smoke constituents other than nicotine or its metabolites may account for the relationship between smoking and pancreatic cancer.
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3.
  • Araghi, Marzieh, et al. (författare)
  • Use of moist oral snuff (snus) and pancreatic cancer : pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 141:4, s. 687-693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>While smoking is a well-established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the effect of smokeless tobacco is less well understood. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess the association between Swedish snus use and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 424,152 male participants from nine cohort studies were followed up for risk of pancreatic cancer through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding factors. During 9,276,054 person-years of observation, 1,447 men developed pancreatic cancer. Compared to never-snus use, current snus use was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83–1.11) after adjustment for smoking. Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer in men. Tobacco smoke constituents other than nicotine or its metabolites may account for the relationship between smoking and pancreatic cancer.</p>
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4.
  • Araghi, Marzieh, et al. (författare)
  • Use of moist oral snuff (snus) and pancreatic cancer : Pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 141:4, s. 687-693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>While smoking is a well-established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the effect of smokeless tobacco is less well understood. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess the association between Swedish snus use and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 424,152 male participants from nine cohort studies were followed up for risk of pancreatic cancer through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding factors. During 9,276,054 person-years of observation, 1,447 men developed pancreatic cancer. Compared to never-snus use, current snus use was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83-1.11) after adjustment for smoking. Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer in men. Tobacco smoke constituents other than nicotine or its metabolites may account for the relationship between smoking and pancreatic cancer. What's new? While smoking is a well-established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the effect of smokeless tobacco is less well understood. Smokeless tobacco like snus yields lower exposure to tobacco carcinogens compared with smoking, because it does not undergo combustion, but delivers an equivalent dose of nicotine. Using pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use, here the authors show that Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer in men. Tobacco smoke constituents other than nicotine or its metabolites may account for the relationship between smoking and pancreatic cancer.</p>
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5.
  • Arthur, R., et al. (författare)
  • Serum inflammatory markers in relation to prostate cancer severity and death in the Swedish AMORIS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 142:11, s. 2254-2262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Inflammation is a well-documented driver of cancer development and progression. However, little is known about its role in prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, we examined the association of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin and white blood cells (WBC) with prostate cancer (PCa) severity (defined by PCa risk category and clinicopathological characteristics) and progression (defined by PCa death). We selected 8,471 Swedish men with newly diagnosed PCa who had exposure measurements taken approximately 14 years prior to diagnosis. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the associations between the inflammatory markers and PCa severity using logistic regression, while Cox proportional hazard regression was used for the associations with overall and PCa death. Serum CRP levels were associated with increased odds of high risk and metastatic PCa, and high PSA levels (20 mu g/L) (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56, 1.32; 1.05-1.65 and 1.51; 1.26-1.81, respectively). Similarly, higher haptoglobin levels were associated with increased odds of metastatic PCa, high PSA level and possibly high grade PCa (1.38; 1.10-1.74, 1.50; 1.17-1.93 and 1.25; 1.00-1.56, respectively). Albumin was positively associated with Gleason 4+3 tumour (1.38; 1.02-1.86) and overall death (HRunit increase in log: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.30), but inversely associated with high risk PCa and high PSA levels (20 mu g/L) (0.71; 0.56-0.89 and 0.72; 0.5 9-0.90). WBC was associated with increased odds of T3-T4 PCa. Except for albumin, none of these markers were associated with PCa death or overall death. Systemic inflammation as early as 14 years prior to diagnosis may influence prostate cancer severity. What's new? High levels of C-reactive protein can presage a particularly malignant prostate cancer, new results show. Cancers certainly arise in the wake of chronic inflammation, but it's not known exactly how markers of inflammation initiate prostate cancer. Here, the authors show that systemic inflammation can worsen the severity of the cancer, even if it occurred long before the cancer's onset. High levels of CRP and haptoglobin, they found, were associated with prostate cancer with high PSA and metastasis. The question remains whether inflammation pushes cancer cells into a more malignant mode, or selects for the more dangerous cells early on.</p>
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6.
  • Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg, et al. (författare)
  • Gastrointestinal and liver disease in Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia : A population-based cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 139:7, s. 1501-1511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Survival after childhood cancer diagnosis has remarkably improved, but emerging evidence suggests that cancer-directed therapy may have adverse gastrointestinal late effects. We aimed to comprehensively assess the frequency of gastrointestinal and liver late effects among childhood cancer survivors and compare this frequency with the general population. Our population-based cohort study included all 1-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden diagnosed from the 1940s and 1950s. Our outcomes of interest were hospitalization rates for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, which were ascertained from national patient registries. We calculated standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) and absolute excess rates comparing hospitalizations of any gastrointestinal or liver disease and for specific disease entities between survivors and the general population. The study included 31,132 survivors and 207,041 comparison subjects. The median follow-up in the hospital registries were 10 years (range: 0-42) with 23% of the survivors being followed at least to the age of 40 years. Overall, survivors had a 60% relative excess of gastrointestinal or liver diseases [RR: 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.7], which corresponds to an absolute excess of 360 (95% CI: 330-390) hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years. Survivors of hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and leukemia had the highest excess of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. In addition, we observed a relative excess of several specific diseases such as esophageal stricture (RR: 13; 95% CI: 9.2-20) and liver cirrhosis (RR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.0-4.1). Our findings provide useful information about the breadth and magnitude of late complications among childhood cancer survivors and can be used for generating hypotheses about potential exposures related to these gastrointestinal and liver late effects.
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7.
  • Baglietto, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • DNA methylation changes measured in pre-diagnostic peripheral blood samples are associated with smoking and lung cancer risk
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:1, s. 50-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>DNA methylation changes are associated with cigarette smoking. We used the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to determine whether methylation in DNA from pre-diagnostic, peripheral blood samples is associated with lung cancer risk. We used a case-control study nested within the EPIC-Italy cohort and a study within the MCCS cohort as discovery sets (a total of 552 case-control pairs). We validated the top signals in 429 case-control pairs from another 3 studies. We identified six CpGs for which hypomethylation was associated with lung cancer risk: cg05575921 in the AHRR gene (p-valuepooled  = 4 × 10(-17) ), cg03636183 in the F2RL3 gene (p-valuepooled  = 2 × 10 (- 13) ), cg21566642 and cg05951221 in 2q37.1 (p-valuepooled  = 7 × 10(-16) and 1 × 10(-11) respectively), cg06126421 in 6p21.33 (p-valuepooled  = 2 × 10(-15) ) and cg23387569 in 12q14.1 (p-valuepooled  = 5 × 10(-7) ). For cg05951221 and cg23387569 the strength of association was virtually identical in never and current smokers. For all these CpGs except for cg23387569, the methylation levels were different across smoking categories in controls (p-valuesheterogeneity  ≤ 1.8 x10 (- 7) ), were lowest for current smokers and increased with time since quitting for former smokers. We observed a gain in discrimination between cases and controls measured by the area under the ROC curve of at least 8% (p-values ≥ 0.003) in former smokers by adding methylation at the 6 CpGs into risk prediction models including smoking status and number of pack-years. Our findings provide convincing evidence that smoking and possibly other factors lead to DNA methylation changes measurable in peripheral blood that may improve prediction of lung cancer risk.</p>
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8.
  • Baltzer, Nicholas, et al. (författare)
  • Risk stratification in cervical cancer screening by complete screening history : Applying bioinformatics to a general screening population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 141:1, s. 200-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Women screened for cervical cancer in Sweden are currently treated under a one-size-fits-all programme, which has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer but does not use all of the participants' available medical information. This study aimed to use women's complete cervical screening histories to identify diagnostic patterns that may indicate an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. A nationwide case-control study was performed where cervical cancer screening data from 125,476 women with a maximum follow-up of 10 years were evaluated for patterns of SNOMED diagnoses. The cancer development risk was estimated for a number of different screening history patterns and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR), with a history of 4 benign cervical tests as reference, using logistic regression. The overall performance of the model was moderate (64% accuracy, 71% area under curve) with 61-62% of the study population showing no specific patterns associated with risk. However, predictions for high-risk groups as defined by screening history patterns were highly discriminatory with ORs ranging from 8 to 36. The model for computing risk performed consistently across different screening history lengths, and several patterns predicted cancer outcomes. The results show the presence of risk-increasing and risk-decreasing factors in the screening history. Thus it is feasible to identify subgroups based on their complete screening histories. Several high-risk subgroups identified might benefit from an increased screening density. Some low-risk subgroups identified could likely have a moderately reduced screening density without additional risk.</p>
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9.
  • Bamia, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: Multicentre, prospective cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 136:8, s. 1899-1908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend<0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend=0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend=0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend=0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects.
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10.
  • Bamia, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population : multicentre, prospective cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 136:8, s. 1899-1908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend &lt; 0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend = 0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects.</p>
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