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  • Brusselaers, Nele, et al. (författare)
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0020-7136. ; 140:7, s. 1693-1699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A protective effect of female sex hormones has been suggested to explain the male predominance in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma, but evidence is lacking. We aimed to test whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) decreases the risk of these tumors. For comparison, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was also assessed. This population-based matched cohort study included all women who had ever used systemic MHT in Sweden in 2005-2012. A comparison cohort of non-users of MHT was matched to the MHT-users regarding age, parity, thrombotic events, hysterectomy, diabetes, obesity, smoking-related diseases, and alcohol-related diseases. Individuals with any previous cancer were excluded. Data on MHT use, cancer, comorbidity, and mortality were collected from well-established Swedish nationwide registers. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Different MHT regimens and age groups were compared in sub-group analyses. We identified 290,186 ever-users and 870,165 non-users of MHT. Ever-users had decreased ORs of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.85, n=46), gastric adenocarcinoma (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74, n=123), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.83, n=33). The ORs were decreased for both estrogen-only MHT and estrogen and progestin combined MHT, and in all age groups. The lowest OR was found for esophageal adenocarcinoma in MHT-users younger than 60 years (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.65). Our study suggests that MHT-users are at a decreased risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma, and also of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated.
  • Eriksson, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Time from breast cancer diagnosis to therapeutic surgery and breast cancer prognosis : A population-based cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 143:5, s. 1093-1104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Theoretically, time from breast cancer diagnosis to therapeutic surgery should affect survival. However, it is unclear whether this holds true in a modern healthcare setting in which breast cancer surgery is carried out within weeks to months of diagnosis. This is a population- and register-based study of all women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Stockholm-Gotland healthcare region in Sweden, 2001-2008, and who were initially operated. Follow-up of vital status ended 2014. 7,017 women were included in analysis. Our main outcome was overall survival. Main analyses were carried out using Cox proportional hazards models. We adjusted for likely confounders and stratified on mode of detection, tumor size and lymph node metastasis. We found that a longer interval between date of morphological diagnosis and therapeutic surgery was associated with a poorer prognosis. Assuming a linear association, the hazard rate of death from all causes increased by 1.011 (95% CI 1.006-1.017) per day. Comparing, for example, surgery 6 weeks after diagnosis to surgery 3 weeks after diagnosis, thereby confers a 1.26-fold increased hazard rate. The increase in hazard rate associated with surgical delay was strongest in women with largest tumors. Whilst there was a clear association between delays and survival in women without lymph node metastasis, the association may be attenuated in subgroups with increasing number of lymph node metastases. We found no evidence of an interaction between time to surgery and mode of detection. In conclusion, unwarranted delays to primary treatment of breast cancer should be avoided. What's new? Theoretically, an increase in the interval between breast-cancer diagnosis and therapeutic surgery should affect survival, but it is uncertain whether that holds true in a modern healthcare setting. In this prospective study, the authors found that even fairly short delays (on the order of days or weeks) from diagnosis to surgery are associated with decreased survival. These results suggest that the time between diagnosis and therapeutic surgery should be kept as short as possible without hampering diagnostic work-up and preoperative patient optimization.
  • He, Wei, et al. (författare)
  • Cause-specific mortality in women with breast cancer in situ
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0020-7136. ; 140:11, s. 2414-2421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long-term mortality remains unknown in women diagnosed with breast cancer in situ (BCIS). Here, we assessed the cause-specific mortality in BCIS patients. This population-based cohort study included 12,243 women diagnosed with BCIS in Sweden between 1980 and 2011. Patients were followed until death, emigration, or 31 December 2013, whichever came first. The 30-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer-specific mortality was 6.3%, which is considerably lower than 49.7% observed for other-cause mortality. Women diagnosed with BCIS were more likely to die from breast cancer (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 3.85; 95% CI, 3.47-4.27) but less likely to die from cardiovascular disease (SMR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.95) than women in the general population. Specifically, the SMRs for breast cancer-specific mortality decreased over time from 5.19 (95% CI, 3.95-6.81) among BCIS diagnosed during 1980-1989 to 3.03 (95% CI, 2.35-3.91) among those diagnosed during 2000-2011. Furthermore, higher risk of death from other causes was seen among those with older age at BCIS diagnosis, lower levels of education, nulliparity, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, and being hospitalized before BCIS diagnosis; whereas, lower risk of death from breast cancer was seen among BCIS diagnosed in the later time period and those with younger age at first birth. We conclude that most women diagnosed with BCIS die from causes other than breast cancer, which highlights the need for actions not only to reduce nonbreast cancer mortality but also to identify patient where extensive curative BCIS treatment is not adding to survival.
  • Lagergren, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • Prognosis following cancer surgery during holiday periods
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0020-7136. ; 141:10, s. 1971-1980
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Lee, Myeongjee, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in survival for patients with familial and sporadic cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0020-7136. ; 140:3, s. 581-590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Family history of cancer is a well-known risk factor but the role of family history in survival is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family history and cancer survival for the common cancers in Sweden. Using the Swedish population-based registers, patients diagnosed with the most common cancers were followed for cancer-specific death during 1991-2010. We used multivariate proportional hazards (Cox) regression models to contrast the survival of patients with a family history of cancer (individuals whose parent or sibling had a concordant cancer) to the survival of patients without a family history. Family history of cancer had a modest protective effect on survival for breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.81 to 0.96) and prostate cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.90). In contrast, family history of cancer was associated with worse survival for nervous system cancers (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.47) and ovarian cancer (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.43). Furthermore, the poorer survival for ovarian cancer was consistent with a higher FIGO stage and a greater proportion of more aggressive tumors of the serous type. The better survival for patients with a family history of breast and prostate cancer may be due to medical surveillance of family members. The poor survival for ovarian cancer patients with an affected mother or sister is multifactorial, suggesting that these cancers are more aggressive than their sporadic counterparts.
  • Shaohua, Xie, et al. (författare)
  • A model for predicting individuals' absolute risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma : moving toward tailored screening and prevention
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0020-7136. ; 138:12, s. 2813-2819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is characterized by rapidly increasing incidence and poor prognosis, stressing the need for preventive and early detection strategies. We used data from a nationwide population-based case-control study, which included 189 incident cases of EAC and 820 age- and sex-matched control participants, from 1995 through 1997 in Sweden. We developed risk prediction models based on unconditional logistic regression. Candidate predictors included established and readily identifiable risk factors for EAC. The performance of model was assessed by the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with cross-validation. The final model could explain 94% of all case patients with EAC (94% population attributable risk) and included terms for gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms or use of antireflux medication, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, duration of living with a partner, previous diagnoses of esophagitis and diaphragmatic hernia and previous surgery for esophagitis, diaphragmatic hernia or severe reflux or gastric or duodenal ulcer. The AUC was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and slightly lower after cross-validation. A simpler model, based only on reflux symptoms or use of antireflux medication, BMI and tobacco smoking could explain 91% of the case patients with EAC and had an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.85). These EAC prediction models showed good discriminative accuracy, but need to be validated in other populations. These models have the potential for future use in identifying individuals with high absolute risk of EAC in the population, who may be considered for endoscopic screening and targeted prevention.
  • Strand, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal fluctuation in mammographic percent density differentiates between interval and screen-detected breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Int J Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0020-7136. ; 140:1, s. 34-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interval breast cancer (IC) has a more aggressive phenotype and higher mortality than screen-detected cancer (SDC). In this case-case study, we investigated whether the size of longitudinal fluctuations in mammographic percent density (PD fluctuation) was associated with the ratio of IC versus SDC among screened women with breast cancer. The primary study population consisted of 1,414 postmenopausal breast cancer cases, and the validation population of 1,241 cases. We calculated PD fluctuation as the quadratic mean of deviations between actual PD and the long-term trend estimated by a mixed effects model. In a logistic regression model we examined the association between PD fluctuation and IC versus SDC including adjustments for PD at last screening, age at diagnosis, BMI and hormone replacement therapy. All statistical tests were two-sided. There were 385 IC and 1,029 SDC in the primary study population, with PD fluctuations of 0.44 and 0.41 respectively (p = 0.0309). After adjustments, PD fluctuation was associated with an increased ratio of IC versus SDC, with an estimated per-standard deviation odds ratio of 1.17 (95% CI = 1.03-1.33), compared to 1.19 (95% CI = 1.04-1.38) in the validation population. In screened women with breast cancer, high fluctuation in mammographic percent density was associated with an increased ratio of IC versus SDC. Whether this is entirely related to a reduced mammographic detectability or to a biological phenotype promoting faster tumor growth remains to be elucidated.
  • Yang, Haomin, et al. (författare)
  • Time-dependent risk of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders in patients with invasive and in situ breast cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0020-7136. ; 140:4, s. 841-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite concerns about the mental health of breast cancer patients, little is known regarding the temporal risk pattern and risk factors of common mental disorders among these patients. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of depression, anxiety and stress-related disorders in a Swedish nationwide cohort of 40,849 women with invasive and 4,402 women with in-situ breast cancer (2001- 2010, median follow-up = 4.5 years). The impact of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics was analyzed using flexible parametric survival models in a regional cohort of 7,940 invasive breast cancer patients (2001-2013, median follow-up = 7.5 years). Women with invasive breast cancer showed increased rates of depression, anxiety and stress-related disorders [overall SIR (95% CI) = 1.57 (1.46- 1.69), 1.55 (1.43-1.68) and 1.77 (1.60-1.95), respectively]. SIRs were highest shortly after diagnosis, but remained increased up to 5 years. Younger age at diagnosis, comorbidity, higher-grade disease, lymph node involvement and chemotherapy were independently associated with the risk of depression and anxiety in invasive cancer patients, with chemotherapy and higher-grade disease conferring short-term risk only, while comorbidities were mainly associated with late-onset events. No clinical risk factors were identified for stress-related disorders except for a greater risk associated with younger age. Patients with in-situ cancer only showed an increased incidence of stress-related disorders during the first six months after diagnosis [SIR (95% CI) = 2.76 (1.31-5.79)]. The time-dependent risk profile of invasive cancer patients may guide health care professionals for timely and targeted psycho-oncologic interventions.
  • Smans, Karine A, et al. (författare)
  • Bispecific antibody-mediated lysis of primary cultures of ovarian carcinoma cells using multiple target antigens
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 83:2, s. 270-277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have shown previously that a bispecific antibody (BsAb) directed against both germ-cell alkaline phosphatase (GCAP) and the CD3 complex on mouse T cells could effectively eliminate GCAP-positive tumor cells in vivo using an immunocompetent mouse model. However, some GCAP-negative tumor cells were still able to grow, suggesting that BsAb therapy, when used in a clinical setting, could benefit from targeting several tumor markers to prevent outgrowth of tumor cells lacking a targeted marker. To test this hypothesis, we developed an in vitro model based on primary human ovarian carcinoma (OC) cultures and BsAbs directed against human T cells and several tumor markers [placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), GCAP, folate-binding protein (FBP) and CA19.9]. OC cells, isolated from primary tumors, were co-cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence or absence of various concentrations of BsAbs against PLAP/GCAP, FBP and CA19.9 administered separately or in combination. Results derived from 18 primary OC samples showed that the combination treatment was better than or equally effective as the best single BsAB treatment in 60% of cases. Sometimes targeting FBP, PLAP/GCAP or CA19.9 alone was superior to targeting all simultaneously. Combining each BsAb with a low dose of IL-2 was always beneficial. These results indicate that before using a specific BsAb in the clinic, it is important to determine the optimal BsAb for each patient using this in vitro assay on cells from the removed tumor mass.
  • Gentile, Massimilano, et al. (författare)
  • Deletion mapping of chromosome segment 11q24-q25, exhibiting extensive allelic loss in early onset breast cancer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 92:2, s. 208-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frequent allelic deletions at chromosome 11q24-q25 have been described in both early and late onset breast cancers, suggesting the existence of a gene locus implicated in the initiation and/or progression of the disease. In the present study we fine mapped this region further by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis in a population of early onset breast cancer cases (n = 102, 22 to 36 years old). Loss of chromosomal material was assessed for possible association with patient survival as well as Nottingham histologic grade (NHG). Additionally, we investigated the involvement of the 11q24-q25 locus in a group of familial breast cancer cases with no detectable BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene alterations (n = 32, ages 28 to 40 years). Among the consecutive patients, extensive LOH was observed for all markers at 11q24-q25, with frequencies ranging from 42% to 54%. Deletion at the D11S4125 marker was found to be associated with reduced survival (p = 0.026), whereas the adjacent D11S387 marker correlated with higher histologic grade (p = 0.042). In the familial cases, the most telomeric markers showed substantially lower proportions of LOH, ranging from 10% to 21%. Comparison of the two patient groups demonstrated that this difference in LOH frequency was statistically significant for the D11S4098, D11S968, D11S387 and D11S4125 markers (p = 0.020, p = 0.029, p = 0.0070 and p = 0.0030, respectively). We conclude that 11q25 may harbor a gene implicated in early onset breast cancer. Our data suggest that the most probable position for this locus is defined by the markers D11S387 and D11S4125 and furthermore that it may play a less significant role in familial breast cancer cases not linked to either of the BRCA genes.
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