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  • Michels, Karin B., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 91:4, s. 563-567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary antioxidant vitamins and retinol have been proposed to be protective against breast cancer on the basis of their ability to reduce oxidative DNA damage and their role in cell differentiation. Epidemiologic studies have not been convincing in supporting this hypothesis, but women with high exposure to free radicals and oxidative processes have not been specifically considered. We explored these issues in the Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort, a large population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden that comprised 59,036 women, 40-76 years of age, who were free of cancer at baseline and who had answered a validated 67-item food frequency questionnaire. During 508,267 person-years of follow-up, 1,271 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between intake of ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, retinol or vitamin E and breast cancer incidence. High intake of ascorbic acid was inversely related to breast cancer incidence among overweight women (HR=0.61; 95% CI 0.45-0.82, for highest quintile of intake among women with body mass index>25 kg/m(2)) and women with high consumption of linoleic acid (HR=0.72; 95% CI 0.52-1.02, for highest quintile of ascorbic acid intake and average consumption of more than 6 grams of linoleic acid per day). Among women with a body mass index of 25 or below, the hazard ratio for breast cancer incidence was 1.27 (95% CI 0.99-1.63), comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of ascorbic acid intake. Consumption of foods high in ascorbic acid may convey protection from breast cancer among women who are overweight and/or have a high intake of linoleic acid.
  • Gustafsson, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • International incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer before cytological screening
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 71:2, s. 159-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Huge differences in incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer occur among populations. These differences reflect the influences of both etiological environmental factors and removal of precursor lesions detected upon screening. The purposes of this article are (i) to describe similarities and differences in the shapes and magnitudes of age-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer before screening had an effect, (ii) to provide baseline data for further global study of screening effects, and (iii) to provide baseline incidence data for the design of optimal screening programs. To eliminate the impact of screening effects, we have selected age-specific incidence rates from times when and from populations in which screening was insignificant. The selected rates were suitably scaled and compared regarding age at onset of increase in incidence, age at peak incidence, and rate of subsequent decline. Despite a 16-fold difference in incidence rates, all curves had the same basic structure, with an increase to a peak followed by a decline or a plateau. Although all populations but one had an onset around age 25, 7 European countries showed an earlier peak age (mean = 46 vs. 59) and a more rapid decline after the peak than most other populations. The common basic shape of the age-specific incidence curve, overall, suggests a relatively similar development of invasive cervical cancer in different populations. These results illustrate the underlying similarities in the markedly different age-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer. They also provide a basis for studying screening effects and for optimizing screening programs in specific geographic areas.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and risk of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma : a prospective study
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 70:2, s. 155-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is likely to be related to immune function. In the light of the established immunologic effects of a pregnancy, we decided to examine the risk of NHL and CLL in relationship to full-term pregnancies. Within a nationwide cohort we identified 1,546 women with NHL and 198 women with CLL, all 15 years or older, born 1925-1972. Five age-matched controls were selected for each case patient. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios after mutual adjustment for number of births and age at first birth. We found a weak, negative association between parity and risk of NHL (p for trend 0.11) and a transient, 10-40% decrease in risk within 5-14 years after the last birth among women with various parity status. The risk of CLL decreased more markedly, and orderly with increasing parity, but the trend was not significant (p = 0.18). Small numbers of cases with CLL prevented more detailed analyses of temporal relationships. Age at first birth appeared unrelated to the risk of both NHL and CLL. We conclude that the immunologic alterations associated with a pregnancy have limited, if any, relevance to the etiology of NHL and CLL; changing reproductive pattern is an unlikely contributor to the marked increase in incidence of NHL seen in many populations.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in relation to testicular-cancer risk : a nested case-control study
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 82:1, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An infectious etiology of testicular cancer has been suggested. We have evaluated seroreactivity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in relation to testicular-cancer risk in a case-control study, nested within a cohort of prospectively collected serum specimens from 293,692 individuals. For each of 81 cases of testicular cancer identified, 3 controls were randomly selected from the cohort. Serum IgG antibody titers against CMV and EBV were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunofluorescence methods. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained from conditional logistic-regression models. No association was found between CMV positivity and testicular cancer overall (OR = 1.08; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.94); risk for testicular seminoma was increased among CMV seropositive [OR = 1.70 (0.80-3.59)], whereas seropositivity was associated with decreased risk for testicular non-seminoma [OR = 0.54 (0.19-1.56)] (p for heterogeneity, 0.09). For EBV, the risk for testicular cancer was increased among individuals seropositive for viral capsid antigen (VCA) [OR = 2.74 (0.62-12.12)]. The results lend some support to the hypothesis of an infectious etiology, and we propose that future studies should take into account age at infection.
  • Amini, Rose-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Patients suffering from both Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: : a clinico-pathological and immuno-histochemical population-based study of 32 patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 71:4, s. 510-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occurrence of Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) appearing in the same individual indicates a closer relationship between the 2 diseases than previously believed. The purpose of our study was to analyze cases of HD and NHL in a defined population clinically, histopathologically and immunohistochemically to look for similarities indicating a common cellular origin. Between 1974 and 1994, 77 individuals were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry and the National Health Care Programme for HD as potentially having both diagnoses. Thirty-two patients who had both HD and NHL were available for histo-pathological re-examination and immunohistochemical staining with CD30, CD15, LMP, p53, CD45 (LCA), CD3, CD45R0 (UCHL-1), L26, MB2 and CD45R (4KB5). The most common relation was HD preceding a high-grade malignant NHL (16 of 32 patients), unexpectedly often of T-cell phenotype (7 of 16 patients). The next common association was NHL of B-CLL type followed by HD (7 of 32 patients). At clinical presentation, the first lymphoma did not differ from lymphomas not associated with a second lymphoma, whereas the second one often appeared with a disseminated and aggressive clinical form. There was a significant correlation between the expression of p53 and LMP in first and second lymphomas. CD3 antibody was frequently expressed both in HD and NHL, whereas positivity for B-cell-related antibodies, CD30, CD15 and CD45R0, was less frequent and generally lower than previously described. The occurrence of HD and NHL in an individual is unusual. Tumour biological features common to both HD and NHL may indicate a similar cellular origin, regardless of the time interval between the diagnoses, and may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoma.
  • Hjalgrim, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Non-melanoma skin cancer may be a marker of poor prognosis in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 85:5, s. 639-642
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to recent results, patients with non-melanoma skin cancers are at increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The prognostic significance of this association is unknown. Two cohorts of patients with a first diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and a subsequent diagnosis of either NHL (n = 170) or colon cancer (n = 435) were established using national cancer registry data in Denmark. Two other cohorts of patients in whom NHL (n = 600) or colon cancer (n = 1,541) was the patients' first known malignancy served as comparison groups. Mortality rates were compared using Cox's regression analysis. Among patients younger than 80 years at NHL diagnosis, a history of non-melanoma skin cancer was associated with significantly increased mortality [relative risk (RR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.99]. This association was present in both men (RR = 1.38; 1.02-1.86) and women (RR = 2.15; 1.31-3.54) and was similar after both major subtypes of non-melanoma skin cancer. Overall, antedating non-melanoma skin cancer had no prognostic significance for colon cancer patients (RR = 1.00; 0.84-1.18). Whatever the underlying mechanism, our observation has potential clinical implications. If substantiated in other settings, NHL patients with prior non-melanoma skin cancer may constitute a subgroup of lymphoma patients in need of particular therapeutic attention.
  • Thörn, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of late mortality in cutaneous malignant melanoma : A population-based study in Sweden
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 67:1, s. 38-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We determined risk factors for late deaths from cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) based on clinical characteristics at diagnosis, initial surgical treatment, histopathologic features of the primary tumor and type of eventual recurrences during follow-up. We examined deaths from CMM 8 or more completed years after the initial diagnosis in a case-control study nested in a nationwide cohort comprising all 8,838 patients with CMM diagnosed in Sweden during 1960-1978 with complete follow-up through 1986. There were 285 case patients and 285 control patients, individually matched by sex, age and follow-up time. Conditional logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) as estimates of the relative risk. The risk of late mortality increased stepwise, almost 19-fold, with increasing tumor thickness from < or = 0.75 to > or = 7.00 mm. Besides the thickest tumors (> or = 7.00 mm), those of intermediate thickness (1.50-2.49 mm) had the highest risk (OR 8.5). After adjustment for tumor thickness, non-radical primary surgical treatment increased the risk of late mortality almost 3-fold while prophylactic lymph node dissection entailed a significantly reduced risk of late mortality (OR 0.5); the histopathologic features increasing level of invasion and vertical growth phase also remained significantly associated with a poor outcome. In a multivariate model, non-radical primary surgical treatment, prophylactic lymph node dissection, vertical growth phase, level of invasion and lymphocyte reaction were independent predictors of late mortality.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal and perinatal factors associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 65:6, s. 774-777
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This nested case-control study based on 1.7 million live births in Sweden explores the associations between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The National Swedish Cancer Registry ascertained 168 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1989 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. From the nationwide Birth Registry, 5 controls without NHL and alive at the date the case was diagnosed were randomly selected from the pool of children, with each case matched by gender, birth year and birth month. Standardized information on selected maternal and perinatal factors up to one month after delivery were recorded in the Medical Birth Registry. Mothers of children with NHL were more likely than mothers of controls to have undergone Cesarean section [Odds ratio (OR) 1.6] and to have been exposed to paracervical anesthesia during delivery (OR 1.8). Children with NHL were more likely than controls to have endocrine-metabolic disorders (OR 3.3). This study is one of the largest focusing on the etiology of childhood NHL. Most of the maternal and perinatal characteristics studied did not markedly affect risk for childhood NHL, which may be due to maternal and perinatal factors not included in these data or to exposures later in life.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Sunlight and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma : a population-based cohort study in Sweden
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 80:5, s. 641-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Indirect evidence, notably ecological comparisons and an association with skin cancer, links non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with exposure to sunlight. We conducted a population-based, nationwide cohort study with exposure to outdoor work inferred from job titles reported in the population and housing censuses in 1960 and/or 1970 and by classifying each individual's work and home addresses according to latitude. Follow-up for cancer incidence was accomplished through record linkages with the virtually complete Swedish Cancer Registry. The cohort included all Swedish residents who were recorded as gainfully employed in both censuses. Altogether 4,171,175 individuals contributing 69,639,237 person-years accrued through 1989 were included in the analyses. We identified 10,381 cases of NHL, 4,018 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 11,398 cases of malignant melanoma (MM) and 11,913 cases of squamous cell skin cancer (SCC). We calculated age-adjusted relative risks for NHL, CLL, MM and SCC in strata based on estimated residential and occupational sunlight exposure. Interaction effects were considered for pesticide and solvent exposure. NHL, MM and SCC, but not CLL, were positively associated with increasingly southerly residential latitude, with stronger associations seen for skin cancer compared to NHL. Occupational sun exposure was not associated with the risk of developing any of the studied cancers. Pesticides and solvents also were not related to an increased risk of NHL, nor did these exposures enhance effects of residential or occupational sunlight exposure. Our results provide some support for an association of sunlight exposure with NHL incidence based on the associations seen using geographic latitude of residence as a proxy for exposure. Although type of occupation may be an imperfect index of the biologically relevant ultraviolet (UV) light dose, our data on individual exposure are not consistent with an important role of sunlight in the etiology of NHL.
  • Ylitalo, Nathalie, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and oral contraceptives as risk factors for cervical carcinoma in situ
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 81:3, s. 357-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is probably a necessary but definitely not a sufficient cause of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear which factors, in addition to HPV, are important for the development of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions. To address this issue, we conducted a case-control study nested in a population-based cohort consisting of women participating in cytological screening in one Swedish county, any time during 1969 through 1995. Detailed information on sexual practice, smoking habits and oral contraceptive (OC) use were collected through telephone interviews with 422 case patients diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ and 422 control subjects. All cytological smears were analyzed for presence of HPV 16/18 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Odds ratios (OR) were used as measures of relative risk. After multivariate adjustment, a 2-fold higher risk was observed among current smokers compared with never smokers [OR 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.32-2.85)], an association apparently confined to women younger than 45 years. Current use of OCs was associated with a 4-fold increased risk overall (OR 3.64; 95% CI 1.91-6.93) with a monotonic increase with increasing duration of use (p for trend < 0.001). The number of sexual partners was significantly, positively associated with risk among HPV 16/18-negative (p for trend < 0.005) but not among HPV 16/18-positive women. Our data confirm the association between smoking and cervical carcinoma in situ, which might be age-dependent. Our results further indicate a relation with OC use and the risk for cervical carcinoma in situ.
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