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  • Chapman, Ben, et al. (författare)
  • Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2656 .- 0021-8790. ; 84:5, s. 1187-1193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1.Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2.We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open versus closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3.We find evidence both across and within-populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4.Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Frainer, André, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • When does diversity matter? : Species functional diversity and ecosystem functioning across habitats and seasons in a field experiment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 83:2, s. 460-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite ample experimental evidence indicating that biodiversity might be an important driver of ecosystem processes, its role in the functioning of real ecosystems remains unclear. In particular, the understanding of which aspects of biodiversity are most important for ecosystem functioning, their importance relative to other biotic and abiotic drivers, and the circumstances under which biodiversity is most likely to influence functioning in nature, is limited. We conducted a field study that focussed on a guild of insect detritivores in streams, in which we quantified variation in the process of leaf decomposition across two habitats (riffles and pools) and two seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in six streams, and the same locations were sampled in the two seasons. With the aid of structural equations modelling, we assessed spatiotemporal variation in the roles of three key biotic drivers in this process: functional diversity, quantified based on a spe- cies trait matrix, consumer density and biomass. Our models also accounted for variability related to different litter resources, and other sources of biotic and abiotic variability among streams. All three of our focal biotic drivers influenced leaf decomposition, but none was important in all habitats and seasons. Functional diversity had contrasting effects on decomposition between habitats and seasons. A positive relationship was observed in pool habitats in spring, associated with high trait dispersion, whereas a negative relationship was observed in riffle habitats during autumn. Our results demonstrate that functional biodiversity can be as significant for functioning in natural ecosystems as other important biotic drivers. In particular, variation in the role of functional diversity between seasons highlights the importance of fluctuations in the relative abundances of traits for ecosystem process rates in real ecosystems.
  • Moller, Anders Pape, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole-nesting birds
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : WILEY. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 87:6, s. 1738-1748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole-nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co-occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across Europe and Northern Africa during 1957-2012 for a total of 19,075 great tit and 16,729 blue tit clutches to assess correlative evidence for a relationship between laying date and clutch size, respectively, and density consistent with effects of intraspecific and interspecific competition. In an initial set of analyses, we statistically controlled for a suite of site-specific variables. We found evidence for an effect of intraspecific competition on blue tit laying date (later laying at higher density) and clutch size (smaller clutch size at higher density), but no evidence of significant effects of intraspecific competition in great tits, nor effects of interspecific competition for either species. To further control for site-specific variation caused by a range of potentially confounding variables, we compared means and variances in laying date and clutch size of great and blue tits among three categories of difference in density between the two species. We exploited the fact that means and variances are generally positively correlated. If interspecific competition occurs, we predicted a reduction in mean and an increase in variance in clutch size in great tit and blue tit when density of heterospecifics is higher than the density of conspecifics, and for intraspecific competition, this reduction would occur when density of conspecifics is higher than the density of heterospecifics. Such comparisons of temporal patterns of means and variances revealed evidence, for both species, consistent with intraspecific competition and to a smaller extent with interspecific competition. These findings suggest that competition associated with reproductive behaviour between blue and great tits is widespread, but also varies across large spatial and temporal scales.
  • Parssinen, Varpu, et al. (författare)
  • Maladaptive migration behaviour in hybrids links to predator-mediated ecological selection
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 89:11, s. 2596-2604
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different migratory species have evolved distinct migratory characteristics that improve fitness in their particular ecological niches. However, when such species hybridize, migratory traits from parental species can combine maladaptively and cause hybrids to fall between parental fitness peaks, with potential consequences for hybrid viability and species integrity. Here, we take advantage of a natural cross-breeding incident to study migratory behaviour in naturally occurring hybrids as well as in their parental species and explore links between migratory traits and predation risk. To achieve this, we used electronic tags and passive telemetry to record detailed individual migration patterns (timing and number of migratory trips) in two common freshwater fish species, roachRutilus rutilus, common breamAbramis bramaas well as their hybrids. Next, we scanned for tags regurgitated by a key avian predator (great cormorantPhalacrocorax carbo) at nearby roosting sites, allowing us to directly link migratory behaviour to predation risk in the wild. We found that hybrid individuals showed a higher number of short, multi-trip movements between lake and stream habitats as compared to both parental species. The mean date of first lake departure differed between bream and roach by more than 10 days, while hybrids departed in two distinct peaks that overlapped with the parental species' averages. Moreover, the probability of cormorant predation increased with multi-trip movement frequency across species and was higher for hybrids. Our data provide novel insights into hybrid viability, with links to predator-mediated ecological selection. Increased exposure to predators via maladaptive migratory behaviour reduces hybrid survival and can thereby reinforce species integrity.
  • Vinterstare, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • Defence versus defence : Are crucian carp trading off immune function against predator-induced morphology?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 88:10, s. 1510-1521
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous species adopt inducible defence strategies; that is, they have phenotypically plastic traits that decrease the risk of capture and consumption by potential predators. The benefits of expressing alternative phenotypes in high- vs. low-risk environments are well documented. However, inducible anti-predator traits are also expected to incur costs, as they are not expressed when predators are absent, yet empirical evidence of such costs remains scarce. Virtually, all animals in nature are simultaneously under strong selection to evade both capture by predators and infection by parasites or pathogens and, hence, display a diverse arsenal of defences to combat these threats, raising the possibility of trade-offs between defences. A classic example of a predator-induced morphological defence is the deep-bodied shape of crucian carp that reduces risk of predation from gape-size-limited predators. The goal of this study was to examine whether predator exposure affects also immune function in crucian carp, and whether the degree of expressed morphological defence is traded off against immune function in individuals. Following exposure to manipulations of perceived risk (predator presence/absence) in a long-term experiment (8 months), key aspects of innate immune function and individual differences in the expression of inducible morphological defence were quantified. Predator-exposed individuals showed lower haptoglobin levels and complement activity, but higher natural antibody titres than fish from predator-free conditions. When experimentally challenged with a mimicked bacterial infection (LPS injection), fish reared in the presence of a natural predator showed a weaker immune response. Moreover, among predator-exposed individuals, the magnitude of morphological defence expression correlated with both baseline immune function and the ability to mount an immune response. However, these relationships were not consistently supportive of a general trade-off among defences. Our results suggest that fish exposed to predators on average reduce investment in immune function, and, further, the observed relationships among defences in predator-exposed individuals can best be explained from individual fitness and pace-of-life perspectives.
  • Vinterstare, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • More than meets the eye : Predator-induced pupil size plasticity in a teleost fish
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 89:10, s. 2258-2267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most animals are visually oriented, and their eyes provide their ‘window to the world’. Eye size correlates positively with visual performance, because larger eyes can house larger pupils that increase photon catch and contrast discrimination, particularly under dim light, which have positive effects on behaviours that enhance fitness, including predator avoidance and foraging. Recent studies have linked predation risk to selection for larger eyes and pupils, and such changes should be of importance for the majority of teleost fishes as they have a pupil that is fixed in size (eyes lack a pupillary sphincter muscle) and, hence, do not respond to changes in light conditions. Here, we quantify eye and pupil size of individual crucian carp, a common freshwater fish, following controlled manipulations of perceived predation risk (presence/absence). We also tested if crucian carp responded to increased predation risk by shifts in diel activity patterns. We found that crucian carp show phenotypic plasticity with regards to pupil size, but not eye size, as pupil size increased when exposed to predators (pike). Predator-exposed crucian carp also shifted from diurnal to nocturnal activity. Using a modelling exercise, we moreover show that the plastically enlarged pupils significantly increase visual range, especially for small objects under dim light conditions. Overall, our results provide compelling evidence for predator-induced pupil enlargement resulting in enhanced visual capabilities in a teleost fish. Pupil size plasticity in combination with the observed shift towards nocturnal activity may allow for efficient foraging also under dark conditions when predation risk from diurnal and visually oriented predators is reduced. The data highlight the powerful role of predation risk for eye development and evolution.
  • Jonzen, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Stochastic demography and population dynamics in the red kangaroo Macropus rufus
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 79:1, s. 109-116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Many organisms inhabit strongly fluctuating environments but their demography and population dynamics are often analysed using deterministic models and elasticity analysis, where elasticity is defined as the proportional change in population growth rate caused by a proportional change in a vital rate. Deterministic analyses may not necessarily be informative because large variation in a vital rate with a small deterministic elasticity may affect the population growth rate more than a small change in a less variable vital rate having high deterministic elasticity. 2. We analyse a stochastic environment model of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), a species inhabiting an environment characterized by unpredictable and highly variable rainfall, and calculate the elasticity of the stochastic growth rate with respect to the mean and variability in vital rates. 3. Juvenile survival is the most variable vital rate but a proportional change in the mean adult survival rate has a much stronger effect on the stochastic growth rate. 4. Even if changes in average rainfall have a larger impact on population growth rate, increased variability in rainfall may still be important also in long-lived species. The elasticity with respect to the standard deviation of rainfall is comparable to the mean elasticities of all vital rates but the survival in age class 3 because increased variation in rainfall affects both the mean and variability of vital rates. 5. Red kangaroos are harvested and, under the current rainfall pattern, an annual harvest fraction of c. 20% would yield a stochastic growth rate about unity. However, if average rainfall drops by more than c. 10%, any level of harvesting may be unsustainable, emphasizing the need for integrating climate change predictions in population management and increase our understanding of how environmental stochasticity translates into population growth rate.
  • Knape, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • On observation distributions for state space models of population survey data
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 80:6, s. 1269-1277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. State space models are starting to replace more simple time series models in analyses of temporal dynamics of populations that are not perfectly censused. By simultaneously modelling both the dynamics and the observations, consistent estimates of population dynamical parameters may be obtained. For many data sets, the distribution of observation errors is unknown and error models typically chosen in an ad-hoc manner. 2. To investigate the influence of the choice of observation error on inferences, we analyse the dynamics of a replicated time series of red kangaroo surveys using a state space model with linear state dynamics. Surveys were performed through aerial counts and Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, normal and log-normal distributions may all be adequate for modelling observation errors for the data. We fit each of these to the data and compare them using AIC. 3. The state space models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods using a recent importance sampling technique that relies on the Kalman filter. The method relaxes the assumption of Gaussian observation errors required by the basic Kalman filter. Matlab code for fitting linear state space models with Poisson observations is provided. 4. The ability of AIC to identify the correct observation model was investigated in a small simulation study. For the parameter values used in the study, without replicated observations, the correct observation distribution could sometimes be identified but model selection was prone to misclassification. On the other hand, when observations were replicated, the correct distribution could typically be identified. 5. Our results illustrate that inferences may differ markedly depending on the observation distributions used, suggesting that choosing an adequate observation model can be critical. Model selection and simulations show that for the models and parameter values in this study, a suitable observation model can typically be identified if observations are replicated. Model selection and replication of observations, therefore, provide a potential solution when the observation distribution is unknown.
  • Ehnes, Roswitha (författare)
  • Land-use change affects size spectra, energy flux and ecosystem functions in litter and soil invertebrates
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - : Wiley. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 88, s. 1828-1831
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Focus: Potapov, A. M., Klarner, B., Sandmann, D., Widyastuti, R. and Scheu, S. (2019). Linking size spectrum, energy flux and trophic multifunctionality in soil food webs of tropical land-use systems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88, 1845-1859. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13027Potapov et al. (2019) advance our understanding of the various levels of the consequences of human impact on ecosystems. They examine the communities of litter and soil invertebrates in four different forests (from rainforest to oil palm plantations). Data on abundance, body masses and trophic guild in litter and soil invertebrates are expanded to a study towards biodiversity, biomass, energy flux and ecosystem functions. Their results show that size spectra are affected differently for decomposers, herbivores, omnivores and predators. Most of these groups decrease in abundance with increasing land use, and only large decomposers increase strongly. Moreover, creating trophic-group food webs for litter and soil invertebrates of each forest demonstrates the changes in energy flux and ecosystem functions. With their study, Potapov et al. (2019) present new insights into ecosystem functions and the sensitivity of communities to changes in land use.
  • Aalberg Haugen, Inger M., et al. (författare)
  • Diapause induction and relaxed selection on alternative developmental pathways in a butterfly
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 84:2, s. 464-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seasonal phenotypic plasticity entails differential trait expression depending on the time of season. The facultative induction of winter diapause in temperate insects is a developmental switch mechanism often leading to differential expression in life-history traits. However, when there is a latitudinal shift from a bivoltine to univoltine life cycle, selection for pathway-specific expression is disrupted, which may allow drift towards less optimal trait values within the non-selected pathway. We use field- and experimental data from five Swedish populations of Pararge aegeria to investigate latitudinal variation in voltinism, local adaptation in the diapause switch and footprints of selection on pathway-specific regulation of life-history traits and sexual dimorphism in larval development. Field data clearly illustrated how natural populations gradually shift from bivoltinism to univoltinism as latitude increases. This was supported experimentally as the decrease in direct development at higher latitudes was accompanied by increasing critical daylengths, suggesting local adaptation in the diapause switch. The differential expression among developmental pathways in development time and growth rate was significantly less pronounced in univoltine populations. Univoltine populations showed no significant signs of protandry during larval development, suggesting that erosion of the direct development pathway under relaxed selection has led to the loss of its sex-specific modifications.
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