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  • Carlson, Lars A., et al. (författare)
  • A case of massive hypertriglyceridemia corrected by nicotinic acid or nicotinamide therapy
  • 1972
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 16:3, s. 359-368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A case of massive hypertriglyceridemia with fasting plasma triglycerides around 100 mmoles/l is described. Large amounts of chylomicra were present in fasting plasma and the amounts of low-density and high-density lipoproteins were very low. Postheparin plasma lipolytic activity was normal and intravenous heparin rapidly cleared the patient's abnormally prolonged alimentary lipemia with a concomitant rise in plasma free fatty acid levels.Nicotinic acid or nictotinamide given in doses of 3 g or more daily reduced plasma triglyceride levels to about 2–3 mmoles/1 and raised the reduced levels of low and high-density lipoproteins. The mode of onset of this therapeutic effect was slow and the effect persisted for several weeks after withdrawal of either nicotinic acid or nicotinamide.The pathogenesis of the hypertriglyceridemia as well as the mode of action of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide is discussed.
  • Carlson, Lars A., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (CPIB) on fat-mobilizing lipolysis and cyclic AMP levels in rat epididymal fat
  • 1972
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 16:3, s. 349-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High concentrations of chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (CPIB) reduced basal glycerol release from rat epididymal fat pads in vitro and antagonized the lipolytic effects of noradrenaline. Furthermore, very high concentrations of CPIB significantly antagonized the effects or noradrenaline or ACTH on cyclic AMP accumulation by isolated rat adipocytes. These data are not incompatible with the hypothesis that a primary mechanism in the hypolipidemic action of CPIB is to lower the levels of cyclic AMP in adipose tissue, resulting in decreased hormone-sensitive lipase activity and/or increased lipoprotein lipase activity.
  • Holmlund, A., et al. (författare)
  • Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is related to endothelial vasodilatory function in healthy individuals
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 165:2, s. 271-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between markers of systemic and vascular inflammation, and indicators of vascular morphology and function. METHODS: In 59 apparently healthy individuals, we measured serum levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Endothelium-dependent (EDV) and -independent (EIDV) vasodilatation was evaluated in the forearm by venous occlusion plethysmography and local infusions of methacholine and sodium nitroprussid. Endothelial function index (EFI) was expressed as the EDV/EIDV ratio. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery was investigated with ultrasound (far wall). RESULTS: EFI was inversely related only to ICAM-1 (r=-0.31, P<0.02) by univariate analysis. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, smoking and serum cholesterol. EFI did not relate to hsCRP, VCAM-1 or E-selectin. Neither hsCRP, nor the adhesion molecules were significantly related to carotid artery IMT. CONCLUSION: ICAM-1 was related to endothelial vasodilatory function, but not to IMT, suggesting that endothelial inflammatory activation is related to an impaired vascular relaxation in apparently healthy individuals.
  • Sarabi, Mahziar, et al. (författare)
  • Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids in healthy subjects
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 156:2, s. 349-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The fatty acid (FA) composition of the serum lipids has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). As an attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) has been suggested as an early marker of atherosclerosis, we investigated the relationships between the proportion of FA in serum lipids (cholesterol esters and phospholipids) together with the levels of serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and EDV, as well as endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIDV). Fifty-six healthy subjects (31 men and 25 women), aged between 20 and 69 years, underwent measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF) at rest and during local infusion of 2 and 4 microg/min of metacholine (Mch, evaluating EDV), 5 and 10 microg/min of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, evaluating endothelium-independent vasodilation, EIDV) using venous occlusion plethysmography. An index of endothelial function was calculated as the ratio between EDV and EIDV. The proportion of palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1) acids were inversely related (r=-0.35 and -0.35, P<0.01 for both), while linoleic acid (18:2 n6) and the HDL-cholesterol concentration were positively related (r=0.35 and 0.36, P<0.01 for both) to the endothelial function index. In multiple regression analysis also including age and gender, palmitoleic acid and HDL-cholesterol were significant independent predictors of endothelial function. Alfa-linolenic acid (18:3 n3) was positively correlated to both EDV and EIDV (r=0.40 and 0.43, P<0.01 for both), indicating a protective effect of this essential FA on vasodilation in general. It is concluded that the FA composition of serum lipids, partly reflecting the composition of dietary fat and previously associated with the development of CVD, was associated with endothelial function in apparently healthy subjects.
  • Steer, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin C, diclophenac and L-arginine protect endothelium-dependent vasodilation against elevated circulating fatty acid levels in humans
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 168:1, s. 65-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An acute elevation of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) has previously been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV). In this study, we investigated if local administration of vitamin C (n=8, 18 mg/min), L-arginine (n=8, 12.5 mg/min), or the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor diclophenac (n=8, 0.5 mg/min) can counteract the endothelial dysfunction seen during infusion of Intralipid plus heparin (n=10). EDV and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIDV) were studied in the forearm after local administration of methacholine chloride (Mch; 2 and 4 microg/min) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 5 and 10 microg/min). Forearm blood flow (FBF) was determined with venous occlusion plethysmography. Intralipid and heparin increased circulating NEFA levels sevenfold and impaired EDV (P<0.001 vs baseline). Concomitant administration of L-arginine or diclophenac abolished the NEFA-induced impairment in EDV. Concomitant vitamin C administration actually improved EDV (P<0.05 vs baseline). NEFA elevation increased EIDV (P<0.01), but this effect was not significant after L-arginine or diclophenac infusions. In conclusion, an acute elevation of circulating NEFAs led to impaired EDV. Administration of L-arginine, vitamin C or COX inhibition abolished this effect, suggesting that NEFAs might interact with endothelial vasodilatory function through multiple mechanisms.
  • Akhter, Tansim, et al. (författare)
  • Sub-clinical atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery in women with/without previous pre-eclampsia : A seven-year follow-up.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, conventional common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) measurement does not reflect this. In contrast, measurement of the individual CCA intima and media thicknesses clearly indicates increased vascular risk both at diagnosis and about one year after pre-eclampsia. This study examined whether individual CCA wall layers, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and markers of endothelial dysfunction had normalized or remained unfavorable seven years after pre-eclampsia.METHODS: The individual CCA intima and media thicknesses were measured using 22 MHz ultrasound. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media thickness ratio (I/M) are signs of sub-clinical atherosclerosis.RESULTS: The median age of women with previous pre-eclampsia (cases = 23) or normal pregnancies (controls = 35) was 39/37 years. At follow-up (median about seven years), the intima remained thicker and the I/M was higher in cases than in controls [all p < 0.0001; p < 0.001 after adjustment for time to follow-up, body mass index (BMI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], whereas the CCA-IMT was illogically thinner. Further, BMI, MAP, hip circumference, abdominal height, serum endostatin and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in cases (all p < 0.05). Intima and I/M measurements were correlated with age, MAP, endostatin and apolipoprotein B, whereas no logical correlations were found for CCA-IMT.CONCLUSIONS: The arteries in cases but not controls were still adversely affected after seven years. Measuring intima thickness and I/M appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for demonstrating vascular risk after pre-eclampsia.
  • Aldi, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • Dual roles of heparanase in human carotid plaque calcification
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 283, s. 127-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims: Calcification is a hallmark of advanced atherosclerosis and an active process akin to bone remodeling. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-beta-glucuronidase, which cleaves glycosaminoglycan chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The role of HPSE is controversial in osteogenesis and bone remodeling while it is unexplored in vascular calcification. Previously, we reported upregulation of HPSE in human carotid endarterectomies from symptomatic patients and showed correlation of HPSE expression with markers of inflammation and increased thrombogenicity. The present aim is to investigate HPSE expression in relation to genes associated with osteogenesis and osteolysis and the effect of elevated HPSE expression on calcification and osteolysis in vitro.Methods: Transcriptomic and immunohistochemical analyses were performed using the Biobank of Karolinska Endarterectomies (BiKE). In vitro calcification and osteolysis were analysed in human carotid smooth muscle cells overexpressing HPSE and bone marrow-derived osteoclasts from HPSE-transgenic mice respectively.Results: HPSE expression correlated primarily with genes coupled to osteoclast differentiation and function in human carotid atheromas. HPSE was expressed in osteoclast-like cells in atherosclerotic lesions, and HPSE-transgenic bone marrow-derived osteoclasts displayed a higher osteolytic activity compared to wild-type cells. Contrarily, human carotid SMCs with an elevated HPSE expression demonstrated markedly increased mineralization upon osteogenic differentiation.Conclusions: We suggest that HPSE may have dual functions in vascular calcification, depending on the stage of the disease and presence of inflammatory cells. While HPSE plausibly enhances mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells, it is associated with inflammation-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity in advanced atherosclerotic plaques.
  • Bennet, A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Association of TNF-α serum levels and TNFA promoter polymorohisms with risk of myocardial infarction
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - Elsevier. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 187:2, s. 408-414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and presence of polymorphisms of the TNFA gene have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We explored the relationship between polymorphisms in the TNFA gene (−1031C/T, −863C/A −857T/C, −308G/A, −238G/A), protein levels of TNF-α and their association to myocardial infarction (MI) using a sample of 1213 post-MI patients and 1561 healthy controls. MI risk was higher among men with elevated TNF-α levels, with the highest compared to the lowest TNF-α quartile giving a 70% risk increase (OR [95% CI]: 1.7 [1.1; 2.6]). Obese subjects who also had elevated TNF-α levels were at even higher risk for MI (OR [95% CI]: 3.4 [2.1; 5.6]). Higher TNF-α levels were seen among smokers (but not among non-smokers) carrying the −857T allele. Furthermore, a rare haplotype occurred more frequently among the cases than the controls. Elevated TNF-α levels are associated with increased MI risk. Obese subjects with elevated TNF-a levels, and carriers of polymorphisms in or near TNFA are particularly susceptible to the hazards of smoking, results which may have implications for cardiovascular preventive measures.
  • Bernberg, Evelina, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Repeated exposure to stressors do not accelerate atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 204:1, s. 90-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychosocial stress is suggested to play a significant role in development of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate the effects of repeated exposure to stress on atherosclerosis in atherosclerosis-prone ApoE(-/-) mice we used five different stressors. We further sought to determine whether stress combined with high salt diet induces dysfunctional neurohormonal regulation and impaired salt excretion, thus amplifying the atherogenic potential of salt. The five stressors were evaluated in male C57BL/6 mice and ApoE(-/-) mice (studies I and II) and then used in female ApoE(-/-) mice to study their effect on atherosclerosis (study III). The mice in study III received standard or high salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with stress for 12 weeks. Urine and plasma were collected for corticosterone and lipid analysis, respectively. Acute blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to stress were measured using telemetry. Plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and aortic root. Plaque morphology was investigated regarding macrophages and collagen content. Urinary corticosterone chronically increased in stressed mice (P<0.05 control vs. stress, P<0.05 control salt vs. stress salt). BP and HR increased acutely during all stressors (P<0.05). Body weight gain decreased significantly in the stress group (P<0.05 vs. control). However, stress did not alter plasma lipid levels, plaque area or plaque morphology. Increased BP and HR suggest an acute stress-related response in ApoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, stress chronically decreased body weight gain and increased urinary corticosterone levels. Notably, despite an apparent stress effect, stress affected neither atherogenesis nor plaque morphology.
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