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  • Lundin, Daniel, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Structural Phylogenetic Networks for Classification of the Ferritin-like Superfamily
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. - 0021-9258, 1083-351X ; 287:24, s. 20565-20575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the postgenomic era, bioinformatic analysis of sequence similarity is an immensely powerful tool to gain insight into evolution and protein function. Over long evolutionary distances, however, sequence-based methods fail as the similarities become too low for phylogenetic analysis. Macromolecular structure generally appears better conserved than sequence, but clear models for how structure evolves over time are lacking. The exponential growth of three-dimensional structural information may allow novel structure-based methods to drastically extend the evolutionary time scales amenable to phylogenetics and functional classification of proteins. To this end, we analyzed 80 structures from the functionally diverse ferritin-like superfamily. Using evolutionary networks, we demonstrate that structural comparisons can delineate and discover groups of proteins beyond the “twilight zone” where sequence similarity does not allow evolutionary analysis, suggesting that considerable and useful evolutionary signal is preserved in three-dimensional structures.
  • Zetterström, Per, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Proteins that bind to misfolded mutant superoxide dismutase-1 in spinal cords from transgenic ALS model mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. - 1083-351X (Electronic) 0021-9258 (Linking) ; 286:23, s. 20130-20136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) has an unidentified toxic property that provokes ALS. Several ALS-linked SOD1 mutations cause long C-terminal truncations, which suggests that common cytotoxic SOD1 conformational species should be misfolded and that the C-terminal end cannot be involved. The cytotoxicity may arise from interaction of cellular proteins with misfolded SOD1 species. Here we specifically immunocaptured misfolded SOD1 by the C-terminal end, from extracts of spinal cords from transgenic ALS model mice. Associated proteins were identified with proteomic techniques. Two transgenic models expressing SOD1s with contrasting molecular properties were examined: the stable G93A mutant, which is abundant in the spinal cord with only a tiny subfraction misfolded, and the scarce disordered truncation mutant G127insTGGG. For comparison, proteins in spinal cord extracts with affinity for immobilized apo G93A mutant SOD1 were determined. Two-dimensional gel patterns with a limited number of bound proteins were found, which were similar for the two SOD1 mutants. Apart from neurofilament light, the proteins identified were all chaperones and by far most abundant was Hsc70. The immobilized apo G93A SOD1, which would populate a variety of conformations, was found to bind to a considerable number of additional proteins. A substantial proportion of the misfolded SOD1 in the spinal cord extracts appeared to be chaperone-associated. Still, only about 1% of the Hsc70 appeared to be associated with misfolded SOD1. The results argue against the notion that chaperone depletion is involved in ALS pathogenesis in the transgenic models and in humans carrying SOD1 mutations.
  • Abelein, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of dynamic soluble surfactant-induced amyloid β peptide aggregation intermediates
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 288:32, s. 23518-23528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intermediate amyloidogenic states along the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation pathway have been shown to be linked to neurotoxicity. To shed more light on the different structures that may arise during Aβ aggregation, we here investigate surfactant-induced Aβ aggregation. This process leads to co-aggregates featuring a β-structure motif that is characteristic for mature amyloid-like structures. Surfactants induce secondary structure in Aβ in a concentration-dependent manner, from predominantly random coil at low surfactant concentration, via β-structure to the fully formed α-helical state at high surfactant concentration. The β-rich state is the most aggregation-prone as monitored by thioflavin T fluorescence. Small angle x-ray scattering reveals initial globular structures of surfactant-Aβ co-aggregated oligomers and formation of elongated fibrils during a slow aggregation process. Alongside this slow (minutes to hours time scale) fibrillation process, much faster dynamic exchange (k(ex) ∼1100 s(-1)) takes place between free and co-aggregate-bound peptide. The two hydrophobic segments of the peptide are directly involved in the chemical exchange and interact with the hydrophobic part of the co-aggregates. Our findings suggest a model for surfactant-induced aggregation where free peptide and surfactant initially co-aggregate to dynamic globular oligomers and eventually form elongated fibrils. When interacting with β-structure promoting substances, such as surfactants, Aβ is kinetically driven toward an aggregation-prone state.
  • Aboulaich, Nabila, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal control of reversible translocation of perilipin B to the plasma membrane in primary human adipocytes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 281:17, s. 11446-11449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In adipocytes, perilipin coats and protects the central lipid droplet, which stores triacylglycerol. Alternative mRNA splicing gives rise to perilipin A and B. Hormones such as catecholamines and insulin regulate triacylglycerol metabolism through reversible serine phosphorylation of perilipin A. It was recently shown that perilipin was also located in triacylglycerol-synthesizing caveolae of the plasma membrane. We now report that perilipin at the plasma membrane of primary human adipocytes was phosphorylated on a cluster of threonine residues (299, 301, and 306) within an acidic domain that forms part of the lipid targeting domain. Perilipin B comprised <10% of total perilipin but was the major isoform associated with the plasma membrane of human adipocytes. This association was controlled by insulin and catecholamine: perilipin B was specifically depleted from the plasma membrane in response to the catecholamine isoproterenol, while insulin increased the amount of threonine phosphorylated perilipin at the plasma membrane. The reversible translocation of perilipin B to and from the plasma membrane in response to insulin and isoproterenol, respectively, suggests a specific function for perilipin B to protect newly synthesized triacylglycerol in the plasma membrane.
  • Adlerz, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • IGF-1-induced Processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Family Is Mediated by Different Signaling Pathways
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 282:14, s. 10203-10209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mammalian amyloid precursor protein (APP) protein family consists of the APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2). The neurotoxic amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) originates from APP, which is the only member of this protein family implicated in Alzheimer disease. However, the three homologous proteins have been proposed to be processed in similar ways and to have essential and overlapping functions. Therefore, it is also important to take into account the effects on the processing and function of the APP-like proteins in the development of therapeutic drugs aimed at decreasing the production of Abeta. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to regulate APP processing and the levels of Abeta in the brain. In the present study, we show that IGF-1 increases alpha-secretase processing of endogenous APP and also increases ectodomain shedding of APLP1 and APLP2 in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We also investigated the role of different IGF-1-induced signaling pathways, using specific inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our results indicate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is involved in ectodomain shedding of APP and APLP1, but not APLP2, and that MAPK is involved only in the ectodomain shedding of APLP1.
  • Aisenbrey, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Structure and dynamics of membrane-associated ICP47, a viral inhibitor of the MHC I antigen-processing machinery
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258. ; 281:41, s. 30365-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evade the host's immune response, herpes simplex virus employs the immediate early gene product ICP47 (IE12) to suppress antigen presentation to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes by inhibition of the ATP-binding cassette transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). ICP47 is a membrane-associated protein adopting an alpha-helical conformation. Its active domain was mapped to residues 3-34 and shown to encode all functional properties of the full-length protein. The active domain of ICP47 was reconstituted into oriented phospholipid bilayers and studied by proton-decoupled 15N and 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. In phospholipid bilayers, the protein adopts a helix-loop-helix structure, where the average tilt angle of the helices relative to the membrane surface is approximately 15 degrees (+/- 7 degrees ). The alignment of both structured domains exhibits a mosaic spread of approximately 10 degrees . A flexible dynamic loop encompassing residues 17 and 18 separates the two helices. Refinement of the experimental data indicates that helix 1 inserts more deeply into the membrane. These novel insights into the structure of ICP47 represent an important step toward a molecular understanding of the immune evasion mechanism of herpes simplex virus and are instrumental for the design of new therapeutics.
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