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  • Zetterström, Per, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Proteins that bind to misfolded mutant superoxide dismutase-1 in spinal cords from transgenic ALS model mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. - 1083-351X (Electronic) 0021-9258 (Linking) ; 286:23, s. 20130-20136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) has an unidentified toxic property that provokes ALS. Several ALS-linked SOD1 mutations cause long C-terminal truncations, which suggests that common cytotoxic SOD1 conformational species should be misfolded and that the C-terminal end cannot be involved. The cytotoxicity may arise from interaction of cellular proteins with misfolded SOD1 species. Here we specifically immunocaptured misfolded SOD1 by the C-terminal end, from extracts of spinal cords from transgenic ALS model mice. Associated proteins were identified with proteomic techniques. Two transgenic models expressing SOD1s with contrasting molecular properties were examined: the stable G93A mutant, which is abundant in the spinal cord with only a tiny subfraction misfolded, and the scarce disordered truncation mutant G127insTGGG. For comparison, proteins in spinal cord extracts with affinity for immobilized apo G93A mutant SOD1 were determined. Two-dimensional gel patterns with a limited number of bound proteins were found, which were similar for the two SOD1 mutants. Apart from neurofilament light, the proteins identified were all chaperones and by far most abundant was Hsc70. The immobilized apo G93A SOD1, which would populate a variety of conformations, was found to bind to a considerable number of additional proteins. A substantial proportion of the misfolded SOD1 in the spinal cord extracts appeared to be chaperone-associated. Still, only about 1% of the Hsc70 appeared to be associated with misfolded SOD1. The results argue against the notion that chaperone depletion is involved in ALS pathogenesis in the transgenic models and in humans carrying SOD1 mutations.
  • Grubb, A O, et al. (författare)
  • Isolation of human complex-forming glycoprotein, heterogeneous in charge (protein HC), and its IgA complex from plasma. Physiochemical and immunochemical properties, normal plasma concentration
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: The Journal of biological chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 258:23, s. 707-14698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human complex-forming glycoprotein, heterogeneous in charge (protein HC) has previously been isolated from urine and immunochemically shown to be present in low and high molecular weight forms in blood plasma (Tejler, L., and Grubb, A. O. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 439, 82-94). In the present work, the major low and high molecular weight forms of the protein were isolated from plasma by immunosorption followed by gel chromatography. The plasma low molecular weight protein HC and the urinary protein had similar, if not identical, molecular weight, amino acid composition, NH2-terminal and carboxyl-terminal amino acid sequences and electrophoretic mobility. The low molecular weight plasma protein HC carried a yellow chromophore like the urinary protein, but its molar extinction coefficient at 280 nm was lower and its charge heterogeneity less pronounced than that of urinary protein HC. The plasma high molecular weight protein HC had a hydrodynamic volume which was greater than that of monomeric IgA but smaller than that of dimeric IgA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the isolated high molecular weight protein followed by electrophoretic blotting and immunochemical analysis demonstrated that the protein contained four polypeptide chains: two light immunoglobulin chains (Mr = 23,000), one IgA alpha-chain (Mr = 54,000), and one chain with Mr approximately 90,000 which carried both alpha-chain and protein HC antigenic determinants. Whether the protein HC X IgA complex is a functionally significant part of the humoral immune system cannot be decided without further experimentation, but the complex was found to be completely absent from the blood plasma of patients with a selective deficiency of IgA-secreting immunocytes. The isolated low and high molecular weight plasma protein HC components were used as standard proteins in the construction of a quantitative crossed immunoelectrophoretic assay for the simultaneous quantitation of the two major protein HC components in blood plasma. The plasma concentrations of the low and high molecular weight protein HC components were measured by this method in 13 healthy Caucasians. The results for the low molecular weight protein HC were: mean, 20.3 mg/liter, S.D., 3.2 mg/liter, range, 13.6-26.0 mg/liter; and for the protein HC X IgA complex: mean, 293 mg/liter, S.D., 176 mg/liter, range, 36-620 mg/liter.
  • Abelein, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of dynamic soluble surfactant-induced amyloid β peptide aggregation intermediates
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 288:32, s. 23518-23528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intermediate amyloidogenic states along the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation pathway have been shown to be linked to neurotoxicity. To shed more light on the different structures that may arise during Aβ aggregation, we here investigate surfactant-induced Aβ aggregation. This process leads to co-aggregates featuring a β-structure motif that is characteristic for mature amyloid-like structures. Surfactants induce secondary structure in Aβ in a concentration-dependent manner, from predominantly random coil at low surfactant concentration, via β-structure to the fully formed α-helical state at high surfactant concentration. The β-rich state is the most aggregation-prone as monitored by thioflavin T fluorescence. Small angle x-ray scattering reveals initial globular structures of surfactant-Aβ co-aggregated oligomers and formation of elongated fibrils during a slow aggregation process. Alongside this slow (minutes to hours time scale) fibrillation process, much faster dynamic exchange (k(ex) ∼1100 s(-1)) takes place between free and co-aggregate-bound peptide. The two hydrophobic segments of the peptide are directly involved in the chemical exchange and interact with the hydrophobic part of the co-aggregates. Our findings suggest a model for surfactant-induced aggregation where free peptide and surfactant initially co-aggregate to dynamic globular oligomers and eventually form elongated fibrils. When interacting with β-structure promoting substances, such as surfactants, Aβ is kinetically driven toward an aggregation-prone state.
  • Aboulaich, Nabila, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal control of reversible translocation of perilipin B to the plasma membrane in primary human adipocytes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 281:17, s. 11446-11449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In adipocytes, perilipin coats and protects the central lipid droplet, which stores triacylglycerol. Alternative mRNA splicing gives rise to perilipin A and B. Hormones such as catecholamines and insulin regulate triacylglycerol metabolism through reversible serine phosphorylation of perilipin A. It was recently shown that perilipin was also located in triacylglycerol-synthesizing caveolae of the plasma membrane. We now report that perilipin at the plasma membrane of primary human adipocytes was phosphorylated on a cluster of threonine residues (299, 301, and 306) within an acidic domain that forms part of the lipid targeting domain. Perilipin B comprised <10% of total perilipin but was the major isoform associated with the plasma membrane of human adipocytes. This association was controlled by insulin and catecholamine: perilipin B was specifically depleted from the plasma membrane in response to the catecholamine isoproterenol, while insulin increased the amount of threonine phosphorylated perilipin at the plasma membrane. The reversible translocation of perilipin B to and from the plasma membrane in response to insulin and isoproterenol, respectively, suggests a specific function for perilipin B to protect newly synthesized triacylglycerol in the plasma membrane.
  • Abraham, Elena T., et al. (författare)
  • Collagen's primary structure determines collagen:HSP47 complex stoichiometry
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 0021-9258. ; 297:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Collagens play important roles in development and homeostasis in most higher organisms. In order to function, collagens require the specific chaperone HSP47 for proper folding and secretion. HSP47 is known to bind to the collagen triple helix, but the exact positions and numbers of binding sites are not clear. Here, we employed a collagen II peptide library to characterize high-affinity binding sites for HSP47. We show that many previously predicted binding sites have very low affinities due to the presence of a negatively charged amino acid in the binding motif. In contrast, large hydrophobic amino acids such as phenylalanine at certain positions in the collagen sequence increase binding strength. For further characterization, we determined two crystal structures of HSP47 bound to peptides containing phenylalanine or leucine. These structures deviate significantly from previously published ones in which different collagen sequences were used. They reveal local conformational rearrangements of HSP47 at the binding site to accommodate the large hydrophobic side chain from the middle strand of the collagen triple helix and, most surprisingly, possess an altered binding stoichiometry in the form of a 1:1 complex. This altered stoichiometry is explained by steric collisions with the second HSP47 molecule present in all structures determined thus far caused by the newly introduced large hydrophobic residue placed on the trailing strand. This exemplifies the importance of considering all three sites of homotrimeric collagen as independent interaction surfaces and may provide insight into the formation of higher oligomeric complexes at promiscuous collagen-binding sites.
  • Adlerz, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • IGF-1-induced Processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Family Is Mediated by Different Signaling Pathways
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 282:14, s. 10203-10209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mammalian amyloid precursor protein (APP) protein family consists of the APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2). The neurotoxic amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) originates from APP, which is the only member of this protein family implicated in Alzheimer disease. However, the three homologous proteins have been proposed to be processed in similar ways and to have essential and overlapping functions. Therefore, it is also important to take into account the effects on the processing and function of the APP-like proteins in the development of therapeutic drugs aimed at decreasing the production of Abeta. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to regulate APP processing and the levels of Abeta in the brain. In the present study, we show that IGF-1 increases alpha-secretase processing of endogenous APP and also increases ectodomain shedding of APLP1 and APLP2 in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We also investigated the role of different IGF-1-induced signaling pathways, using specific inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our results indicate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is involved in ectodomain shedding of APP and APLP1, but not APLP2, and that MAPK is involved only in the ectodomain shedding of APLP1.
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