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Sökning: L773:0022 3573

  • Resultat 1-10 av 37
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  • Alhalaweh, Amjad, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of cocrystals by spray drying
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP). - 0022-3573 .- 2042-7158. ; 62:10 - Special issue, s. 1332-1333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Spray drying is a widely used technique for material processing and scale-up. The cocrystals formation by spray drying is studied. In contrast to solvent evaporation method, spray drying of stiochiometric solutions of incongruently saturating cocrystals had generated pure cocrystals. The formation phenomena in spray drying could be kinetically controlled or mediated by glassy state.</p>
  • Berggren, S, et al. (författare)
  • Regional transport and metabolism of roivacaine and its CYP3A4 metabolite PPX in human intestine
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. - Pharmaceutical Press. - 0022-3573. ; 55:7, s. 963-972
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The major aim of this study was to investigate the CYP3A4 metabolism and polarized transport of ropivacaine and its metabolite 2',6'-pipecoloxylidide (PPX) in tissue specimens from the human small and large intestine. Ropivacaine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in human colon. This study was conducted using a modified Ussing-chamber technique with specimens from jejunum, ileum and colon collected from 11 patients. The local kinetics of ropivacaine and PPX were assessed from their concentration-time profiles in mucosal and serosal compartments. The permeability (P-app) in the absorptive direction for both ropivacaine and PPX increased regionally in the order jejunum <ileum<colon. Ropivacaine was not found to be subjected to any carrier-mediated intestinal efflux. However, the CYP3A4 metabolite left the human enterocyte in a polarized manner and both the extent of CYP3A4 metabolism of ropivacaine and the extrusion of its metabolite to the mucosal chamber were more efficient in jejunum than in ileum. P-glycoprotein was probably not involved in the metabolite extrusion. No other metabolite than PPX was found. This in-vitro study with human intestinal tissues provides new mechanistic insights into regional transport and metabolism of drugs.
  • Björkman, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Thermic and tremorogenic effects of thyroliberin (TRH) in reserpine-treated mice--the non-involvement of GABA-ergic mechanisms.
  • 1981
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP). - 0022-3573 .- 2042-7158. ; 33:9, s. 580-585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Administration of thyroliberin (TRH) to reserpinized mice causes tremor and counteracts the hypothermia in a dose-dependent fashion. The thyroliberin response is inhibited by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and baclofen, but not by other, more specific GABA-ergic agents, such as THIP, gamma-acetylenic GABA, and sodium valproate. Picrotoxin neither potentiates nor inhibits the thyroliberin actions. Nor are the thyroliberin effects dependent on cholinergic, monoaminergic or histaminergic mechanisms. The results repudiate a current hypothesis, that the peptide actions may be mediated by GABA-ergic pathways in the brain.</p>
  • Bramer, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmaceutical applications for catanionic mixtures
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP). - 0022-3573 .- 2042-7158. ; 59:10, s. 1319-1334
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Mixtures of oppositely charged surfactants, so called catanionic mixtures, are a growing area of research. These mixtures have been shown to form several different types of surfactant aggregates, such as micelles of various forms and sizes, and lamellar structures, such as vesicles. In this review, a short introduction to the field of catanionic mixtures is presented and the pharmaceutical possibilities offered by such mixtures are reviewed. There are several interesting ideas on how to apply catanionic mixtures to improve the delivery of, for example, drug compounds and DNA, or for HIV treatment.</p>
  • Callréus, Torbjörn, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of lithium on the antidiuretic effect of desmopressin.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. - Pharmaceutical Press. - 0022-3573. ; 54:9, s. 1279-1285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to investigate the graded influence from lithium on the antidiuretic effects of desmopressin. Eight healthy male subjects participated in this open, randomised cross-over study with two periods comprising 6 days each. For each subject, one of the study days (6th day) was preceded by a period of lithium treatment. On the study days the subjects were orally water loaded to achieve a state of overhydration with a high urine flow rate. When a steady-state diuresis was achieved after approximately 2 h, 0.396 microg of desmopressin was administered intravenously as a bolus injection. An indirect-response model, where desmopressin was assumed to inhibit the elimination of response, was fitted to the urine osmolarity data. The effects of the independent variables, Uflow(baseline) (baseline urine flow rate), R0 (baseline osmolarity) and serum lithium concentration, on IC50 (concentration producing 50% of the maximum inhibition) could be expressed by multiple linear regression. In conclusion, we found that an indirect-response model can be a useful tool in investigating and describing the pharmacodynamic interaction between drugs, in this particular case, between lithium and desmopressin.
  • Chakraborty, Subhashis, et al. (författare)
  • Effective in-vivo utilization of lipid-based nanoparticles as drug carrier for carvedilol phosphate
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP). - 0022-3573 .- 2042-7158. ; 63:6, s. 774-779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives Lipid nanoparticles as carrier for oral drug administration improve gastrointestinal solubility of poorly soluble drugs and thus enhance bioavailability. However, basic drugs may undergo rapid dissolution from such solid dispersions in the stomach and precipitate in the intestine due to their higher solubility in acidic medium. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the enhancement in bioavailability of carvedilol phosphate (basic drug) by providing an alkaline gastric environment to drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Methods An alkaline gastric environment in rats was created and maintained with oral administration of an antacid suspension 5 min before and 30 min post dosing. Key findings The formulation administered orally exhibited enhanced bioavailability (∼27%) when compared with drug suspension and sustained release behaviour when compared with formulation under ideal gastric conditions. The enhanced bioavailability is due to the presence of lipid nanoparticles as drug carrier while the sustained-release characteristic may be attributed to the presence of antacid, which resulted in elevation of gastric pH and reduced the drug's solubility. Conclusions It may be concluded that although lipid nanoparticles can be instrumental in improving bioavailability, additional sustained release may be achieved by targeting intestinal release of basic drugs from lipid vehicles, which is possible by incorporating them into suitable enteric-coated formulations.</p>
  • Dew, Noel, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Novel Gel Formulations with Catanionic Aggregates Enable Prolonged Drug Release and Reduced Skin Permeation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP). - 0022-3573 .- 2042-7158. ; 63:10, s. 1265-1273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate skin permeation rates of a drug substance when applied in novel gel formulations with catanionic aggregates.</p> <p>Methods: Reference gel without catanionic aggregates was compared with formulations with catanionic aggregates composed of tetracaine and either sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or capric acid. Carbomer and SoftCAT were used to compare the effect of different gel types to elucidate if physically cross-linked, 'self-destructing' systems had benefits compared with classical, covalently cross-linked, gels.</p> <p>Key findings: The rheological investigation showed that the interactions between the SoftCAT polymer and tetracaine/SDS aggregates were stronger than when the tetracaine/capric acid aggregates were used. The skin permeation was measured ex vivo in horizontal Ussing chambers and the permeation of tetracaine was significantly lower when formulations with tetracaine/SDS aggregates were applied (P &lt; 0.001), but not statistically different from the reference when capric acid was used.</p> <p>Conclusions: No morphological differences could be distinguished between the skin samples exposed to the different formulations or the reference. Skin permeation was compared with silicone sheet permeation and the results indicated that silicone sheets could be used as a model of skin when using these formulations.</p>
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