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Sökning: L773:0025 7974 > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Abdelrahman, Islam, et al. (författare)
  • Improvement in mortality at a National Burn Centre since 2000 Was it the result of increased resources?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974. ; 96:25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract The aim of this study was to find out whether the charging costs (calculated using interventional burn score) increased as mortality decreased. During the last 2 decades, mortality has declined significantly in the Linköping Burn Centre. The burn score that we use has been validated as a measure of workload and is used to calculate the charging costs of each burned patient. We compared the charging costs and mortality in 2 time periods (2000–2007 and 2008–2015). A total of 1363 admissions were included. We investigated the change in the burn score, as a surrogate for total costs per patient. Multivariable regression was used to analyze risk-adjusted mortality and burn score. The median total body surface area % (TBSA%) was 6.5% (10–90 centile 1.0–31.0), age 33 years (1.3–72.2), duration of stay/ TBSA% was 1.4 days (0.3–5.3), and 960 (70%) were males. Crude mortality declined from 7.5% in 2000–2007 to 3.4% in 2008–2015, whereas the cumulative burn score was not increased (P=.08). Regression analysis showed that risk-adjusted mortality decreased (odds ratio 0.42, P=.02), whereas the adjusted burn score did not change (P=.14, model R2 0.86). Mortality decreased but there was no increase in the daily use of resources as measured by the interventional burn score. The data suggest that the improvements in quality obtained have been achieved within present routines for care of patients (multidisciplinary/ orientated to patients’ safety).Abbreviation: TBSA% = total body surface area %.
2.
  • Ahlin, Sofie, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • A new sensitive and accurate model to predict moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in patients with obesity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Medicine (United States). - 0025-7974. ; 98:32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a high prevalence in patients with obesity. Only patients with clinical symptoms of OSA are admitted to polysomnography; however, many patients with OSA are asymptomatic. We aimed to create and validate a population-based risk score that predicts the severity of OSA in patients with obesity. We here report the cross-sectional analysis at baseline of an ongoing study investigating the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on OSA. One-hundred sixty-one patients of the Obesity Center of the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy were included in the study. The patients underwent overnight cardiorespiratory monitoring, blood chemistry analyses, hepatic ultrasound, and anthropometric measurements. The patients were divided into 2 groups according OSA severity assessed by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): AHI < 15 = no or mild and AHI >= 15 moderate to severe OSA. A statistical prediction model was created and validated. C statistics was used to evaluate the discrimination performance of the model. The prevalence of OSA was 96.3% with 74.5% of the subjects having moderate/severe OSA. Sex, body mass index, diabetes, and age were included in the final prediction model that had excellent discrimination ability (C statistics equals to 83%). An OSA risk chart score for clinical use was created. Patients with severe obesity are at a very high risk for moderate or severe OSA in particular if they are men, older, more obese, and/or with type 2 diabetes. The OSA risk chart can be useful for general practitioners and patients as well as for bariatric surgeons to select patients with high risk of moderate to severe OSA for further polysomnography.
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3.
  • Bankole, Landry-Cyrille, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy A randomized controlled trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0025-7974. ; 95:31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-ased exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients.Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n=8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention.Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P= 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P=0.008) and 46% (P=0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG.Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients' daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue.
4.
  • Borssen, A. D., et al. (författare)
  • Histological improvement of liver fibrosis in well-treated patients with autoimmune hepatitis A cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine (United States). - 0025-7974. ; 96:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease that if left untreated may lead to the development of cirrhosis. Previous studies on AIH patients have suggested that fibrosis and even cirrhosis can be reversed by medical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment for protection of developing fibrosis and cirrhosis. A total of 258 liver biopsies from 101 patients (72 women, 29 men) were analyzed by a single pathologist and classified according to the Ishak grading (inflammation) and staging (fibrosis) system. Liver histology was stratified according to the temporal changes of fibrosis stage (increased, decreased, or stable), and groups were compared. Complete or partial response to medical treatment was 94.9%. Reduction of fibrosis stage from the first to the last biopsy was seen in 63 patients (62.4%). We found an association between a reduction in the fibrosis stage and continuous glucocorticoid medication, as well as lowered scores of inflammation at last biopsy. Twenty-one patients had cirrhosis (Ishak stage 6) at least in one of the previous biopsies, but only 5 patients at the last biopsy. Histological improvement is common in AIH patients that respond to medical treatment, and a reduction or stabilization of fibrosis stage occurs in about 2/3 of such patients.
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5.
  • Danielsson Borssén, Åsa, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Histological improvement of liver fibrosis in well-treated patients with autoimmune hepatitis a cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974. ; 96:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease that if left untreated may lead to the development of cirrhosis. Previous studies on AIH patients have suggested that fibrosis and even cirrhosis can be reversed by medical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment for protection of developing fibrosis and cirrhosis.Methods Two hundred fifty-eight liver biopsies from 101 patients (72 women, 29 men) were analysed by a single pathologist and classified accordingly to the Ishak grading (inflammation) and staging (fibrosis) system. Liver histology was stratified according to the temporal changes of fibrosis stage (increased, decreased or stable), and groups were compared.Results Complete or partial response to medical treatment was 94.9%. Reduction of fibrosis stage from the first to the last biopsy was seen in 63 patients (62.4%). We found an association between a reduction in fibrosis stage and continuous glucocorticoid medication, as well as lowered scores of inflammation at last biopsy. Twenty-one patients had cirrhosis (Ishak stage 6) at least in one of the previous biopsies, but only five patients at the last biopsy.Conclusions Histological improvement is common in AIH patients that respond to medical treatment, and a reduction or stabilization of fibrosis stage occurs in about 2/3 of such patients.
6.
  • Fretland, Asmund Avdem, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory Response After Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases Data From the Oslo-CoMet Trial.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974. ; 94:42, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Laparoscopic and open liver resection have not been compared in randomized trials. The aim of the current study was to compare the inflammatory response after laparoscopic and open resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in a randomized controlled trial.This was a predefined exploratory substudy within the Oslo CoMet-study. Forty-five patients with CLM were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 23) or open (n = 22) resection. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-plasma samples were collected preoperatively and at defined time points during and after surgery and snap frozen at -80 C. A total of 25 markers were examined using luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques: high-mobility box group 1(HMGB-1), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), cytokines, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex complement activation.Eight inflammatory markers increased significantly from baseline: HMGB-1, cfDNA, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, monocyte chemotactic protein -1, IL-10, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex. Peak levels were reached at the end of or shortly after surgery. Five markers, HMGB-1, cfDNA, IL-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, showed significantly higher levels in the open surgery group compared with the laparoscopic surgery group.Laparoscopic resection of CLM reduced the inflammatory response compared with open resection. The lower level of HMGB-1 is interesting because of the known association with oncogenesis.
7.
  • Gerdle, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Signs of ongoing inflammation in female patients with chronic widespread pain A multivariate, explorative, cross-sectional study of blood samples
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974. ; 96:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This cross-sectional study investigates the plasma inflammatory profile of chronic widespread pain CWP) patients compared to healthy controls CON). Rather than analyzing a relatively few substances at a time, we used a new multiplex proximity extension assay PEA) panel that enabled the simultaneous analysis of 92 inflammation-related proteins, mainly cytokines and chemokines. Seventeen women with CWP and 21 female CON participated and a venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects. Pain intensity and pain thresholds for pressure, heat, and cold were registered. A PEA panel 92 proteins) was used to analyze the blood samples. Multivariate data analysis by projection was used in the statistical analyses. Eleven proteins significantly differentiated the CON and CWP subjects R-2=0.58, Q(2)=0.37, analysis of variance of cross-validated predictive residuals P=0.006). It was not possible to significantly regress pain thresholds within each group CON or CWP). Positive significant correlations existed between several proteins and pain intensities in CWP, but the model reliability of the regression was poor. CWP was associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. Larger studies are needed to confirm the results and to investigate which alterations are condition-specific and which are common across chronic pain conditions. The presence of inflammation could promote the spreading of pain, a hallmark sign of CWP. As it has been suggested that prevalent comorbidities to pain (e.g., depression and anxiety, poor sleep, and tiredness) also are associated with inflammation, it will be important to determine whether inflammation may be a common mediator.
8.
  • Gordon, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk After Total Hip Arthroplasty A Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:6, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery. A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n = 270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 7-21). The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events. During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-10.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.06-1.11). Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls.
9.
  • Gustavsen, Alice, et al. (författare)
  • Effect on mother and child of eculizumab given before caesarean section in a patient with severe antiphospholipid syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974. ; 96:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in pregnancy may trigger the life-threatening catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). Complement activation is implicated in the pathogenesis, and inhibition of complement factor C5 is suggested as an additional treatment option. Patient concerns, diagnosis and interventions: We present a pregnant patient treated with the C5-inhibitor eculizumab due to high risk of developing devastating APS-related complications. The complement inhibitory effects of the treatment were examined both in the patient and the premature infant. Outcomes: Complement activity in the mother recovered considerably faster than anticipated; however, no new thrombosis or CAPS developed during the last week of pregnancy or postpartum. Blood sampling from the umbilical vein and artery, and from the infant after delivery showed low complement activity; however, only 0.3% of the eculizumab concentration detected in the mother, consistent with low placental passage of eculizumab. Lessons: The data underscore the importance of close monitoring of complement inhibition and individualizing dosage regimens in pregnant patients receiving eculizumab. We document how traditional functional complement activity tests cannot assess the effect of eculizumab in premature infants due to the very low levels of complement factors detected in this infant born in gestational week 33. Only trace amounts of eculizumab passed the placenta. In conclusion, complement C5 inhibition might be a safe candidate treatment option for APS during pregnancy and delivery, and additionally, enables prolongation of pregnancy with important weeks.
10.
  • Halvorsen, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy A Cross-Sectional Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS and WILKINS. - 0025-7974. ; 94:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety." The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety" had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy.
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