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Sökning: L773:0025 7974 > (2015-2019) > (2016)

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1.
  • Bankole, Landry-Cyrille, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy A randomized controlled trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong>: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-ased exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n=8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P= 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P=0.008) and 46% (P=0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients' daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue.</p>
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2.
  • Gordon, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk After Total Hip Arthroplasty A Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:6, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery. A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n = 270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 7-21). The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events. During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-10.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.06-1.11). Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls.</p>
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3.
  • Le, Ngai Kien, et al. (författare)
  • High prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative carbapenem resistant strains in Vietnamese pediatric ICUs A multi-centre point prevalence survey
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals. Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year. A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20.8%), and surgery/trauma (11.3%). Intubation rate was 47.8%, central venous catheter 29.4%, peripheral venous catheter 86.2%, urinary catheter 14.6%, and hemodialysis/filtration 1.7%. HAI was diagnosed in 33.1% of the cases: pneumonia (52.2%), septicemia (26.4%), surgical site infection (2%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (2%). Significant risk factors for HAI included age under 7 months, intubation and infection at admission. Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 18 cases, with 81% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most children (87.6%) received antibiotics, with an average of 1.6 antibiotics per case. Colistin was administered to 96 patients, 93% with HAI and 49% with culture confirmed carbapenem resistance. The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use.</p>
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4.
  • Mörse, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974. ; 95:33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES). Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered the study. Levels of AMH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone were monitored at diagnosis and every 3 to 4 months during, and regularly for a mean of 2.6 years after treatment. A profound decline in AMH was seen in the majority of the 21 study patients 3 to 4 months after the beginning of treatment, the exception being patients with WT, of whom 60% showed no such decline. During the remaining treatment, all patients except those with WT not treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy or stem cell transplantation (SCT) had AMH below detection limit. After completion of treatment, patients with OS and WT (without whole abdominal radiotherapy and SCT) recovered in AMH and had FSH in the normal range. In contrast, ES patients showed no AMH recovery and highly fluctuating FSH in the first years of follow-up, except for the 2 youngest patients, who had a late, slow AMH recovery. In conclusion, young female ES patients already showed signs of severe ovarian dysfunction during the first years after cancer treatment similar to patients treated with SCT and abdominal radiotherapy, in contrast to females with WT and OS. Fertility counseling and information concerning fertility preservation procedures should be considered before starting to treat young females with ES.
5.
  • Nilsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden: A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:11, s. e3047
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable. In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability. We reviewed 3301 patients records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in &amp;gt;= 65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being &amp;gt;= 65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay. We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable.</p>
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6.
  • Nilsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable. In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability. We reviewed 3301 patients' records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in &gt;= 65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being &gt;= 65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay. We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable.</p>
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7.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background:To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up.Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models.Results:General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (P&lt;0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSE (P&gt;0.42) and PPA groups (P&gt;0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (P&lt;0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the PPA group (P&gt;0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (P&gt;0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (P&gt;0.02), but not in the NSEB (P&gt;0.25) or the PPA (P&gt;0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors.Conclusion:This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.</p>
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8.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-Associated disorders A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-Associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up. Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models. Results: General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (P&lt;0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSE (P&gt;0.42) and PPA groups (P&gt;0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (P&lt;0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the PPA group (P&gt;0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (P&gt;0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (P&gt;0.02), but not in the NSEB (P&gt;0.25) or the PPA (P&gt;0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors. Conclusion: This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.</p>
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9.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34, s. e4430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background:To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up.Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models.Results:General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (Pamp;lt;0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months Pamp;lt;0.01) compared to the NSE (Pamp;gt;0.42) and PPA groups (Pamp;gt;0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (Pamp;lt;0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (Pamp;lt;0.01) compared to the PPA group (Pamp;gt;0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (Pamp;lt;0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (Pamp;gt;0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (Pamp;gt;0.02), but not in the NSEB (Pamp;gt;0.25) or the PPA (Pamp;gt;0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors.Conclusion:This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.</p>
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10.
  • Patel, Kieran, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of postural changes on cardiovascular parameters across gender
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:28, s. e4149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Introduction: We investigated the effect of postural changes on various cardiovascular parameters across gender. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (16 male, 12 female) were observed at rest (supine) and subjected to 3 interventions; head-down tilt (HDT), HDT with lower body negative pressure (HDT + LBNP at -30 mmHg), and head-up tilt (HUT), each for 10 minutes separated by a 10 minutes recovery period. Methods: Measurements were recorded for heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive differences between the normal-to-normal intervals, heart rate variability-low frequency (LFRRI), heart rate variability-high frequency (HFRRI), low frequency/high frequency ratio (LFRRI/HFRRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), index of contractility (IC), left ventricular work index, and left ventricular ejection time. Results: Across all cardiovascular parameters, there was a significant main effect of the intervention applied but there was no significant main effect of gender across all parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that there are no specific gender differences in regards to the measured variables under the conditions of this study. Furthermore, these results suggest that in healthy subjects, there appears to be evidence that LBNP partially elicits similar cardiovascular responses to HUT, which supports the use of LBNP as an intervention to counteract the effects of central hypovolemia.</p>
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