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  • Chow, W. H., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of urinary tract cancers following kidney or ureter stones
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874. - 0027-8874 (Print) 0027-8874 (Linking) ; 89:19, s. 1453-1457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A relationship has been suggested between kidney or ureter stones and the development of urinary tract cancers. In this study, a population-based cohort of patients hospitalized for kidney or ureter stones in Sweden was followed for up to 25 years to examine subsequent risks for developing renal cell, renal pelvis/ureter, or bladder cancer.Methods: Data from the national Swedish In-patient Register and the national Swedish Cancer Registry were linked to follow 61,144 patients who were hospitalized for kidney or ureter stones from 1965 through 1983. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed on the basis of nationwide cancer incidence rates, after adjustment for age, sex, and calendar year.Results: Risk of renal cell cancer was not elevated in this cohort. Significant excesses of renal pelvis/ureter cancer (SIR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.8-3.3) and bladder cancer (SIR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3-1.6) were observed, but the SIRs for women were more than twice those for men. Risks varied little by age or duration of follow-up. Risks of renal pelvis/ureter cancer and bladder cancer among patients with an associated diagnosis of urinary tract infection were more than double those among patients without such infection, although the risks were significantly elevated in both groups.Conclusions: Individuals hospitalized for kidney or ureter stones are at increased risk of developing renal pelvis/ureter or bladder cancer, even beyond 10 years of follow-up. Chronic irritation and infection may play a role, since kidney or ureter stones were located on the same side of the body as the tumors in most patients with renal pelvis/ureter cancer evaluated in our study.
  • Akre, O, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and testicular cancer
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874. ; 92:13, s. 1093-1096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Akre, O, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and testicular cancer
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 92:13, s. 1093-1096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study of the immune system activation biomarker neopterin and colorectal cancer risk
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Neopterin may be relevant for colorectal cancer (CRC) development, as a biomarker of cellular immune activity exerting pleiotropic effects on cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation. So far, the association between prediagnostic neopterin and colon and rectal cancer risk has not been evaluated in human populations. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using data on plasma concentrations of total neopterin (T-N, sum of neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin) in 830 incident CRC case patients (561 colon and 269 rectal) matched within risk sets to 830 control participants. A subsequent replication study used data from the Hordaland Health Study, where 173 CRC case patients have been diagnosed among 6594 healthy participants over 12 years of follow-up. Results: After multivariable adjustment for a priori chosen CRC risk factors, a "U-shaped" association of T-N with CRC was revealed. Compared with the second quintile of the T-N distribution, the relative risks for the first, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles were 2.37 (95% CI = 1.66 to 3.39), 1.24 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.77), 1.55 (95% CI = 1.08 to 2.22), and 2.31 (95% CI = 1.63 to 3.27), respectively. Replication of these associations within the Hordaland Health Study yielded similar results. No differences have been observed when the associations were explored by colon and rectal cancer site (two-sided P-difference = .87) and after excluding case patients diagnosed within the first four follow-up years. Conclusions: These novel findings provide evidence of the role of both suppressed and activated cell-mediated immunity as reflected by prediagnostic T-N concentrations in the development of CRC.</p>
  • Allen, Naomi E., et al. (författare)
  • Selenium and Prostate Cancer Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Fifteen Prospective Studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 108:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Some observational studies suggest that a higher selenium status is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer but have been generally too small to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by disease stage and grade. Methods: Collaborating investigators from 15 prospective studies provided individual-participant records (from predominantly men of white European ancestry) on blood or toenail selenium concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Odds ratios of prostate cancer by selenium concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Blood selenium was not associated with the risk of total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] per 80 percentile increase = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.23, based on 4527 case patients and 6021 control subjects). However, there was heterogeneity by disease aggressiveness (ie, advanced stage and/or prostate cancer death, P-heterogeneity = .01), with high blood selenium associated with a lower risk of aggressive disease (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.87) but not with nonaggressive disease. Nail selenium was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.40, P-trend &lt;.001, based on 1970 case patients and 2086 control subjects), including both nonaggressive (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.50) and aggressive disease (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.31, P-heterogeneity =.08). Conclusions: Nail, but not blood, selenium concentration is inversely associated with risk of total prostate cancer, possibly because nails are a more reliable marker of long-term selenium exposure. Both blood and nail selenium concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of aggressive disease, which warrants further investigation.</p>
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