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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2000-2009)

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  • Ahlberg, Per E. (författare)
  • Birth of the jawed vertebrates
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 457, s. 1094-1095
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The discovery of embryos in certain fossil fishes not only shows that internal fertilization and live birth evolved early in vertebrate history, but also raises questions about the origin of jawed vertebrates.
  • Ahlberg, Per Erik, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Pelvic claspers confirm chondrichthyan-like internal fertilization in arthrodires
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 460:7257, s. 888-889
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent finds(1,2) demonstrate that internal fertilization and   viviparity (live birth) were more widespread in the Placodermi, an   extinct group of armoured fishes, than was previously realized.   Placoderms represent the sister group of the crown group jawed   vertebrates (Gnathostomata)(3,4), making their mode(s) of reproduction   potentially informative about primitive gnathostome conditions. An   ossified pelvic fin basipterygium discovered in the arthrodire   Incisoscutum ritchiei was hypothesized to be identical in males and   females, with males presumed to have an additional cartilaginous   element or series forming a clasper. Here we report the discovery of a   completely ossified pelvic clasper in Incisoscutum ritchiei (WAM   03.3.28) which shows that this interpretation was incorrect: the   basipterygium described previously(1) is in fact unique to females. The   male clasper is a slender rod attached to a square basal plate that   articulates directly with the pelvis. It carries a small cap of dermal   bone covered in denticles and small hooks that may be homologous with   the much larger dermal component of the ptyctodont clasper.
  • Ahlberg, Per, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Ventastega curonica and the origin of tetrapod morphology
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 453:7199, s. 1199-1204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gap in our understanding of the evolutionary transition from fish to tetrapod is beginning to close thanks to the discovery of new intermediate forms such as Tiktaalik roseae. Here we narrow it further by presenting the skull, exceptionally preserved braincase, shoulder girdle and partial pelvis of Ventastega curonica from the Late Devonian of Latvia, a transitional intermediate form between the 'elpistostegids' Panderichthys and Tiktaalik and the Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) Acanthostega and Ichthyostega. Ventastega is the most primitive Devonian tetrapod represented by extensive remains, and casts light on a part of the phylogeny otherwise only represented by fragmentary taxa: it illuminates the origin of principal tetrapod structures and the extent of morphological diversity among the transitional forms
  • Aziz, Emad F., et al. (författare)
  • Interaction between liquid water and hydroxide revealed by core-hole de-excitation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 455:7209, s. 89-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hydroxide ion plays an important role in many chemical and biochemical processes in aqueous solution(1). But ourmolecular- level understanding of its unusual and fast transport in water, and of the solvation patterns that allow fast transport, is far from complete. One proposal seeks to explain the properties and behaviour of the hydroxide ion by essentially regarding it as a water molecule that is missing a proton(2), and by inferring transport mechanisms and hydration structures from those of the excess proton. A competing proposal invokes instead unique and interchanging hydroxide hydration complexes, particularly the hypercoordinated OH-(H2O)(4) species and tri- coordinated OH-(H2O)(3) that can form a transient hydrogen bond between the H atom of the OH- and a neighbouring water molecule(3-5). Here we report measurements of core- level photoelectron emission and intermolecular Coulombic decay(6-8) for an aqueous hydroxide solution, which show that the hydrated hydroxide ion is capable of transiently donating a hydrogen bond to surrounding watermolecules. In agreement with recent experimental studies of hydroxide solutions(9-12), our finding thus supports the notion that the hydration structure of the hydroxide ion cannot be inferred from that of the hydrated excess proton.
  • Barends, Thomas R. M., et al. (författare)
  • Structure and mechanism of a bacterial light-regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 459, s. 1015-1018
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability to respond to light is crucial for most organisms. BLUF is a recently identified photoreceptor protein domain that senses blue light using a FAD chromophore. BLUF domains are present in various proteins from the Bacteria, Euglenozoa and Fungi. Although structures of single-domain BLUF proteins have been determined, none are available for a BLUF protein containing a functional output domain; the mechanism of light activation in this new class of photoreceptors has thus remained poorly understood. Here we report the biochemical, structural and mechanistic characterization of a full-length, active photoreceptor, BlrP1 (also known as KPN_01598), from Klebsiella pneumoniae. BlrP1 consists of a BLUF sensor domain and a phosphodiesterase EAL output domain which hydrolyses cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). This ubiquitous second messenger controls motility, biofilm formation, virulence and antibiotic resistance in the Bacteria. Crystal structures of BlrP1 complexed with its substrate and metal ions involved in catalysis or in enzyme inhibition provide a detailed understanding of the mechanism of the EAL-domain c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases. These structures also sketch out a path of light activation of the phosphodiesterase output activity. Photon absorption by the BLUF domain of one subunit of the antiparallel BlrP1 homodimer activates the EAL domain of the second subunit through allosteric communication transmitted through conserved domain-domain interfaces.
  • Belonoshko, Anatoly B., et al. (författare)
  • Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth's inner core
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 424:6952, s. 1032-1034
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iron is thought to be the main constituent of the Earth's core(1), and considerable efforts(2-14) have therefore been made to understand its properties at high pressure and temperature. While these efforts have expanded our knowledge of the iron phase diagram, there remain some significant inconsistencies, the most notable being the difference between the 'low' and 'high' melting curves(15). Here we report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of iron based on embedded atom models fitted to the results of two implementations of density functional theory. We tested two model approximations and found that both point to the stability of the body-centred-cubic (b.c.c.) iron phase at high temperature and pressure. Our calculated melting curve is in agreement with the 'high' melting curve, but our calculated phase boundary between the hexagonal close packed (h. c. p.) and b.c.c. iron phases is in good agreement with the 'low' melting curve. We suggest that the h.c.p.-b.c.c. transition was previously misinterpreted as a melting transition, similar to the case of xenon(16-18), and that the b.c.c. phase of iron is the stable phase in the Earth's inner core.
  • Birney, Ewan, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7146, s. 799-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.
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