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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2013)

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1.
  • Axelsson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 495:7441, s. 360-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestication of dogs. was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated(1-5) and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencimg of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication(6). Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.
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3.
  • Berggren, Gustav, et al. (författare)
  • Biomimetic assembly and activation of [FeFe]-hydrogenases
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 499:7456, s. 66-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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4.
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5.
  • Dupont, Samuel, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Get ready for ocean acidification
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 498:7455
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Lappalainen, Tuuli, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome and genome sequencing uncovers functional variation in humans
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 501:7468, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome sequencing projects are discovering millions of genetic variants in humans, and interpretation of their functional effects is essential for understanding the genetic basis of variation in human traits. Here we report sequencing and deep analysis of messenger RNA and microRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project-the first uniformly processed high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from multiple human populations with high-quality genome sequences. We discover extremely widespread genetic variation affecting the regulation of most genes, with transcript structure and expression level variation being equally common but genetically largely independent. Our characterization of causal regulatory variation sheds light on the cellular mechanisms of regulatory and loss-of-function variation, and allows us to infer putative causal variants for dozens of disease-associated loci. Altogether, this study provides a deep understanding of the cellular mechanisms of transcriptome variation and of the landscape of functional variants in the human genome.
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8.
  • Lee, Chiara, et al. (författare)
  • A two-domain elevator mechanism for sodium/proton antiport
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 501:7468, s. 573-577
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporters, located at the plasma membrane in every cell, are vital for cell homeostasis1. In humans, their dysfunction has been linked to diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure and epilepsy, and they are well-established drug targets(2). The best understood model system for Na+/H+ antiport is NhaA from Escherichia coli(1,3), for which both electron microscopy and crystal structures are available(4-6). NhaA is made up of two distinct domains: a core domain and a dimerization domain. In the NhaA crystal structure a cavity is located between the two domains, providing access to the ion-binding site from the inward-facing surface of the protein(1,4). Likemany Na+/H+ antiporters, the activity of NhaA is regulated by pH, only becoming active above pH 6.5, at which point a conformational change is thought to occur(7). The only reported NhaA crystal structure so far is of the low pH inactivated form(4). Here we describe the active-state structure of a Na+/H+ antiporter, NapA from Thermus thermophilus, at 3 angstrom resolution, solved from crystals grown at pH7.8. In the NapA structure, the core and dimerization domains are in different positions to those seen in NhaA, and a negatively charged cavity has now opened to the outside. The extracellular cavity allows access to a strictly conserved aspartate residue thought to coordinate ion binding(1,8,9) directly, a role supported hereby molecular dynamics simulations. To alternate access to this ion-binding site, however, requires a surprisingly large rotation of the core domain, some 20 degrees against the dimerization interface. We conclude that despite their fast transport rates of up to 1,500 ions per second(3), Na+/H+ antiporters operate by a two-domain rocking bundle model, revealing themes relevant to secondary-active transporters in general.
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9.
  • Liberg, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 495, s. 360-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestication of dogs. was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated(1-5) and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencimg of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication(6). Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 56
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