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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2017)

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1.
  • Aartsen, M. G. (författare)
  • Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7682, s. 596-600
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams fromaccelerators(1,2). Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section for neutrino energies 6.3-980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous measurements. The measured cross-section is about 1.3 times the prediction of the standard model(3), consistent with the expectations for charged-and neutral-current interactions. We do not observe a large increase in the crosssection with neutrino energy, in contrast with the predictions of some theoretical models, including those invoking more compact spatial dimensions(4) or the production of leptoquarks(5). This cross-section measurement can be used to set limits on the existence of some hypothesized beyond-standard-model particles, including leptoquarks.
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2.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7681, s. 478-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae(1). Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode(2-6). Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun(7-11), suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, highresolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations(12-14) disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near-and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment(5,15,16).
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3.
  • Ahmadi, M. (författare)
  • Observation of the 1S-2S transition in trapped antihydrogen
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 541:7638, s. 506-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics over the past 200 years. Historical examples of its importance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman and others, the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S-2S transition by Hansch1 to a precision of a few parts in 10(15). Recent technological advances have allowed us to focus on antihydrogen-the antimatter equivalent of hydrogen(2-4). The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today's Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates the study of antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter. In particular, the CPT (charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal) theorem, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Here we report the observation of the 1S-2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen. We determine that the frequency of the transition, which is driven by two photons from a laser at 243 nanometres, is consistent with that expected for hydrogen in the same environment. This laser excitation of a quantum state of an atom of antimatter represents the most precise measurement performed on an anti-atom. Our result is consistent with CPT invariance at a relative precision of about 2 x 10(-10).
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4.
  • Ahmadi, M. (författare)
  • Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 548:7665, s. 66-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The observation of hyperfine structure in atomic hydrogen by Rabi and co-workers(1-3) and the measurement(4) of the zero-field ground-state splitting at the level of seven parts in 10(13) are important achievements of mid-twentieth-century physics. The work that led to these achievements also provided the first evidence for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron(5-8), inspired Schwinger's relativistic theory of quantum electrodynamics(9,10) and gave rise to the hydrogen maser(11), which is a critical component of modern navigation, geo-positioning and very-long-baseline interferometry systems. Research at the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN by the ALPHA collaboration extends these enquiries into the antimatter sector. Recently, tools have been developed that enable studies of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen(12)-the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. The goal of such studies is to search for any differences that might exist between this archetypal pair of atoms, and thereby to test the fundamental principles on which quantum field theory is constructed. Magnetic trapping of antihydrogen atoms(13,14) provides a means of studying them by combining electromagnetic interaction with detection techniques that are unique to antimatter(12,15). Here we report the results of a microwave spectroscopy experiment in which we probe the response of antihydrogen over a controlled range of frequencies. The data reveal clear and distinct signatures of two allowed transitions, from which we obtain a direct, magnetic-field-independent measurement of the hyperfine splitting. From a set of trials involving 194 detected atoms, we determine a splitting of 1,420.4 +/- 0.5 megahertz, consistent with expectations for atomic hydrogen at the level of four parts in 10(4). This observation of the detailed behaviour of a quantum transition in an atom of antihydrogen exemplifies tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge-parity-time in antimatter, and the techniques developed here will enable more-precise such tests.
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5.
  • Arcavi, Iair (författare)
  • Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7679, s. 210-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.
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6.
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7.
  • Chapron, Guillaume (författare)
  • The environment needs cryptogovernance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 545, s. 403-405
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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8.
  • Chen, Changchun, et al. (författare)
  • IL-17 is a neuromodulator of Caenorhabditis elegans sensory responses
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 542:7639, s. 43-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine: it mediates responses to pathogens or tissue damage, and drives autoimmune diseases. Little is known about its role in the nervous system. Here we show that IL-17 has neuromodulator-like properties in Caenorhabditis elegans. IL-17 can act directly on neurons to alter their response properties and contribution to behaviour. Using unbiased genetic screens, we delineate an IL-17 signalling pathway and show that it acts in the RMG hub interneurons. Disrupting IL-17 signalling reduces RMG responsiveness to input from oxygen sensors, and renders sustained escape from 21% oxygen transient and contingent on additional stimuli. Over-activating IL-17 receptors abnormally heightens responses to 21% oxygen in RMG neurons and whole animals. IL-17 deficiency can be bypassed by optogenetic stimulation of RMG. Inducing IL-17 expression in adults can rescue mutant defects within 6 h. These findings reveal a non-immunological role of IL-17 modulating circuit function and behaviour.
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9.
  • de lavergne, C. (författare)
  • Abyssal ocean overturning shaped by seafloor distribution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7679, s. 181-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The abyssal ocean is broadly characterized by northward flow of the densest waters and southward flow of less-dense waters above them. Understanding what controls the strength and structure of these interhemispheric flows-referred to as the abyssal overturning circulation-is key to quantifying the ocean's ability to store carbon and heat on timescales exceeding a century. Here we show that, north of 32 degrees S, the depth distribution of the seafloor compels dense southernorigin waters to flow northward below a depth of about 4 kilometres and to return southward predominantly at depths greater than 2.5 kilometres. Unless ventilated from the north, the overlying mid-depths (1 to 2.5 kilometres deep) host comparatively weak mean meridional flow. Backed by analysis of historical radiocarbon measurements, the findings imply that the geometry of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic basins places a major external constraint on the overturning structure.
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10.
  • Elmqvist, Thomas (författare)
  • Sustainability and resilience differ
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 546:7658, s. 352-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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