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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2018)

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1.
  • Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba, et al. (författare)
  • Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 555, s. 497-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability2 (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can approach the efficiency limits in tandem solar cells, coloured-light-emitting diodes and other optoelectronic applications.
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2.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of the 1S-2P Lyman-alpha transition in antihydrogen
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 561:7722, s. 211-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 1906, Theodore Lyman discovered his eponymous series of transitions in the extreme-ultraviolet region of the atomic hydrogen spectrum(1,2). The patterns in the hydrogen spectrum helped to establish the emerging theory of quantum mechanics, which we now know governs the world at the atomic scale. Since then, studies involving the Lyman-alpha line-the 1S-2P transition at a wavelength of 121.6 nanometres-have played an important part in physics and astronomy, as one of the most fundamental atomic transitions in the Universe. For example, this transition has long been used by astronomers studying the intergalactic medium and testing cosmological models via the so-called 'Lyman-alpha forest('3) of absorption lines at different redshifts. Here we report the observation of the Lyman-alpha transition in the antihydrogen atom, the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. Using narrow-line-width, nanosecond-pulsed laser radiation, the 1S-2P transition was excited in magnetically trapped antihydrogen. The transition frequency at a field of 1.033 tesla was determined to be 2,466,051.7 +/- 0.12 gigahertz (1 sigma uncertainty) and agrees with the prediction for hydrogen to a precision of 5 x 10(-8). Comparisons of the properties of antihydrogen with those of its well-studied matter equivalent allow precision tests of fundamental symmetries between matter ;and antimatter. Alongside the ground-state hyperfine(4,5) and 1S-2S transitions(6,7) recently observed in antihydrogen, the Lyman-alpha transition will permit laser cooling of antihydrogen(8,9), thus providing a cold and dense sample of anti-atoms for precision spectroscopy and gravity measurements(10). In addition to the observation of this fundamental transition, this work represents both a decisive technological step towards laser cooling of antihydrogen, and the extension of antimatter spectroscopy to quantum states possessing orbital angular momentum.
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3.
  • Bahram, Mohammad (författare)
  • Structure and function of the global topsoil microbiome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 560, s. 233-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soils harbour some of the most diverse microbiomes on Earth and are essential for both nutrient cycling and carbon storage. To understand soil functioning, it is necessary to model the global distribution patterns and functional gene repertoires of soil microorganisms, as well as the biotic and environmental associations between the diversity and structure of both bacterial and fungal soil communities(1-4). Here we show, by leveraging metagenomics and metabarcoding of global topsoil samples (189 sites, 7,560 subsamples), that bacterial, but not fungal, genetic diversity is highest in temperate habitats and that microbial gene composition varies more strongly with environmental variables than with geographic distance. We demonstrate that fungi and bacteria show global niche differentiation that is associated with contrasting diversity responses to precipitation and soil pH. Furthermore, we provide evidence for strong bacterial-fungal antagonism, inferred from antibiotic-resistance genes, in topsoil and ocean habitats, indicating the substantial role of biotic interactions in shaping microbial communities. Our results suggest that both competition and environmental filtering affect the abundance, composition and encoded gene functions of bacterial and fungal communities, indicating that the relative contributions of these microorganisms to global nutrient cycling varies spatially.
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5.
  • Chapron, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • Don't let triage put a gloss on extinctions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 554, s. 300-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Eme, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • The eukaryotic ancestor shapes up
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 562:7727, s. 352-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Asgard archaea are the closest known relatives of nucleus-bearing organisms called eukaryotes. A study indicates that these archaea have a dynamic network of actin protein - a trait thought of as eukaryote-specific.
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9.
  • Hallinger, Martin (författare)
  • Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 562, s. 57-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature-trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
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10.
  • Hashimoto, Takuya, et al. (författare)
  • The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 557:7705, s. 392-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A fundamental quest of modern astronomy is to locate the earliest galaxies and study how they influenced the intergalactic medium a few hundred million years after the Big Bang(1-3). The abundance of star-forming galaxies is known to decline(4,5) from redshifts of about 6 to 10, but a key question is the extent of star formation at even earlier times, corresponding to the period when the first galaxies might have emerged. Here we report spectroscopic observations of MACS1149-JD1(6), a gravitationally lensed galaxy observed when the Universe was less than four per cent of its present age. We detect an emission line of doubly ionized oxygen at a redshift of 9.1096 +/- 0.0006, with an uncertainty of one standard deviation. This precisely determined redshift indicates that the red rest-frame optical colour arises from a dominant stellar component that formed about 250 million years after the Big Bang, corresponding to a redshift of about 15. Our results indicate that it may be possible to detect such early episodes of star formation in similar galaxies with future telescopes.
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