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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2011)

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  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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21.
  • Pruszynski, J. Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Primary motor cortex underlies multi-joint integration for fast feedback control
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - London : Macmillan Journals. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 478:7369, s. 387-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A basic difficulty for the nervous system is integrating locally ambiguous sensory information to form accurate perceptions about the outside world(1-4). This local-to-global problem is also fundamental to motor control of the arm, because complex mechanical interactions between shoulder and elbow allow a particular amount of motion at one joint to arise from an infinite combination of shoulder and elbow torques(5). Here we show, in humans and rhesus monkeys, that a transcortical pathway through primary motor cortex (M1) resolves this ambiguity during fast feedback control. We demonstrate that single M1 neurons of behaving monkeys can integrate shoulder and elbow motion information into motor commands that appropriately counter the underlying torque within about 50 milliseconds of a mechanical perturbation. Moreover, we reveal a causal link between M1 processing and multi-joint integration in humans by showing that shoulder muscle responses occurring 50 milliseconds after pure elbow displacement can be potentiated by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Taken together, our results show that transcortical processing through M1 permits feedback responses to express a level of sophistication that rivals voluntary control; this provides neurophysiological support for influential theories positing that voluntary movement is generated by the intelligent manipulation of sensory feedback(6,7).</p>
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22.
  • Sawcer, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 476:7359, s. 214-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.</p>
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23.
  • Schröder, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Reduction of disulphide bonds unmasks potent antimicrobial activity of human β-defensin 1
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Macmillan Publishers Ltd.. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 469:7330, s. 419-423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Human epithelia are permanently challenged by bacteria and fungi, including commensal and pathogenic microbiota. In the gut, the fraction of strict anaerobes increases from proximal to distal, reaching 99% of bacterial species in the colon. At colonic mucosa, oxygen partial pressure is below 25% of airborne oxygen content, moreover microbial metabolism causes reduction to a low redox potential of -200 mV to -300 mV in the colon. Defensins, characterized by three intramolecular disulphide-bridges, are key effector molecules of innate immunity that protect the host from infectious microbes and shape the composition of microbiota at mucosal surfaces. Human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) is one of the most prominent peptides of its class but despite ubiquitous expression by all human epithelia, comparison with other defensins suggested only minor antibiotic killing activity. Whereas much is known about the activity of antimicrobial peptides in aerobic environments, data about reducing environments are limited. Herein we show that after reduction of disulphide-bridges hBD-1 becomes a potent antimicrobial peptide against the opportunistic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and against anaerobic, Gram-positive commensals of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Reduced hBD-1 differs structurally from oxidized hBD-1 and free cysteines in the carboxy terminus seem important for the bactericidal effect. In vitro, the thioredoxin (TRX) system is able to reduce hBD-1 and TRX co-localizes with reduced hBD-1 in human epithelia. Hence our study indicates that reduced hBD-1 shields the healthy epithelium against colonisation by commensal bacteria and opportunistic fungi. Accordingly, an intimate interplay between redox-regulation and innate immune defence seems crucial for an effective barrier protecting human epithelia.</p>
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24.
  • Seibert, M. Marvin, et al. (författare)
  • Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 470:7332, s. 78-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>X-ray lasers offer new capabilities in understanding the structure of biological systems, complex materials and matter under extreme conditions(1-4). Very short and extremely bright, coherent X-ray pulses can be used to outrun key damage processes and obtain a single diffraction pattern from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into plasma(1). The continuous diffraction pattern of non-crystalline objects permits oversampling and direct phase retrieval(2). Here we show that high-quality diffraction data can be obtained with a single X-ray pulse from a noncrystalline biological sample, a single mimivirus particle, which was injected into the pulsed beam of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source(5). Calculations indicate that the energy deposited into the virus by the pulse heated the particle to over 100,000 K after the pulse had left the sample. The reconstructed exit wavefront (image) yielded 32-nm full-period resolution in a single exposure and showed no measurable damage. The reconstruction indicates inhomogeneous arrangement of dense material inside the virion. We expect that significantly higher resolutions will be achieved in such experiments with shorter and brighter photon pulses focused to a smaller area. The resolution in such experiments can be further extended for samples available in multiple identical copies.</p>
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25.
  • Wardle, David (författare)
  • Non-natives: 141 scientists object
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 475, s. 36-36
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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26.
  • Wilson, Christopher, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Observation of the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 479:7373, s. 376-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most surprising predictions of modern quantum theory is that the vacuum of space is not empty. In fact, quantum theory predicts that it teems with virtual particles flitting in and out of existence. Although initially a curiosity, it was quickly realized that these vacuum fluctuations had measurable consequences-for instance, producing the Lamb shift of atomic spectra and modifying the magnetic moment of the electron. This type of renormalization due to vacuum fluctuations is now central to our understanding of nature. However, these effects provide indirect evidence for the existence of vacuum fluctuations. From early on, it was discussed whether it might be possible to more directly observe the virtual particles that compose the quantum vacuum. Forty years ago, it was suggested that a mirror undergoing relativistic motion could convert virtual photons into directly observable real photons. The phenomenon, later termed the dynamical Casimir effect, has not been demonstrated previously. Here we observe the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit consisting of a coplanar transmission line with a tunable electrical length. The rate of change of the electrical length can be made very fast (a substantial fraction of the speed of light) by modulating the inductance of a superconducting quantum interference device at high frequencies (>10 gigahertz). In addition to observing the creation of real photons, we detect two-mode squeezing in the emitted radiation, which is a signature of the quantum character of the generation process.
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27.
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28.
  • Bertolotto, Corine, et al. (författare)
  • A SUMOylation-defective MITF germline mutation predisposes to melanoma and renal carcinoma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 480:7375, s. 94-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes(1); risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension(2). A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers(3). The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene(4); it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor(5) (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes(6). We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (Psi KXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer.
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29.
  • Burguillos Garcia, Miguel, et al. (författare)
  • Caspase signalling controls microglia activation and neurotoxicity.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 472, s. 214-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activation of microglia and inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity are suggested to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Activated microglia release pro-inflammatory factors that may be neurotoxic. Here we show that the orderly activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7, known executioners of apoptotic cell death, regulate microglia activation through a protein kinase C (PKC)-δ-dependent pathway. We find that stimulation of microglia with various inflammogens activates caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 in microglia without triggering cell death in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown or chemical inhibition of each of these caspases hindered microglia activation and consequently reduced neurotoxicity. We observe that these caspases are activated in microglia in the ventral mesencephalon of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the frontal cortex of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Taken together, we show that caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 are involved in regulating microglia activation. We conclude that inhibition of these caspases could be neuroprotective by targeting the microglia rather than the neurons themselves.
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30.
  • Chapman, Henry N, et al. (författare)
  • Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 470:7332, s. 73-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction 'snapshots' are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source. We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes. More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals (∼200 nm to 2 μm in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes. This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.
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