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  • af Edholm, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Reasoning : Leg weakness and stiffness at the emergency room
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 92:6, s. E622-E625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A 48-year-old woman from the Maghreb came to the emergency department with insidious gait difficulties, urgency, and constipation starting 6 months prior to the visit. The patient's complaints consisted of weakness, stiffness, and pain in her legs. Her medical history consisted of Hashimoto thyroiditis and breast cancer, with the latter having motivated surgery 4 months prior to admission. Histopathologic examination had demonstrated ductal cancer sensitive to estrogen and mapping with sentinel node biopsy ruled out metastasis. For that reason, the patient was treated with local radiation given weekly over 1 month and treatment with tamoxifen was started. Physical examination upon admission demonstrated weakness and spasticity in both legs. Reflexes were brisk; bilateral nonsustained foot clonus and Babinski sign were also present. Bilateral dorsal flexion was reduced, but vibration and sensation to touch and pinprick were normal. Sphincter tonus was reduced; systemic manifestations such as myalgias, fever, skin rashes, uveitis, sicca, and arthritic joints were absent.
  • Akram, Harith, et al. (författare)
  • Optimal deep brain stimulation site and target connectivity for chronic cluster headache
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 89:20, s. 2083-2091
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache and the optimal target within the ventral tegmental area. Methods: Seven patients with refractory chronic cluster headache underwent high spatial and angular resolution diffusion MRI preoperatively. MRI-guided and MRI-verified electrode implantation was performed unilaterally in 5 patients and bilaterally in 2. Volumes of tissue activation were generated around active lead contacts with a finite-element model. Twelve months after surgery, voxel-based morphometry was used to identify voxels associated with higher reduction in headache load. Probabilistic tractography was used to identify the brain connectivity of the activation volumes in responders, defined as patients with a reduction of >= 30% in headache load. Results: There was no surgical morbidity. Average follow-up was 34 +/- 14 months. Patients showed reductions of 76 +/- 33% in headache load, 46 +/- 41% in attack severity, 58 +/- 41% in headache frequency, and 51 +/- 46% in attack duration at the last follow-up. Six patients responded to treatment. Greatest reduction in headache load was associated with activation in an area cantered at 6 mm lateral, 2 mm posterior, and 1 mm inferior to the midcommissural point of the third ventricle. Average responders' activation volume lay on the trigeminohypothalamic tract, connecting the trigeminal system and other brainstem nuclei associated with nociception and pain modulation with the hypothalamus, and the prefrontal and mesial temporal areas. Conclusions: We identify the optimal stimulation site and structural connectivity of the deep brain stimulation target for cluster headache, explicating possible mechanisms of action and disease pathophysiology.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Safety of Alemtuzumab and Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Compared to Noninduction Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 96:11, s. E1574-E1584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To assess safety outcomes for the induction therapies alemtuzumab and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) compared to noninduction disease-modifying therapies. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study linking the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register to national health care registers. Alemtuzumab, AHSCT, and a matched reference group of noninduction therapies (natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, rituximab, fingolimod) were included if started between 2008 and 2017. Main outcomes were death, thyroid disease, nonthyroid autoimmune disease, and infection. Results We identified 132 alemtuzumab-treated and 139 AHSCT-treated (68% high-dose cyclo-phosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin [ATG], 32% BCNU, etoposide, cytosine-arabinoside, and melphalan/ATG) patients, together with 2,486 matched patients treated with noninduction therapies. Four patients in the alemtuzumab group died (incidence rate [IR] per 1,000 person-years 8.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-22.0) compared to 1 patient in the AHSCT group (IR 1.7, 95% CI 0.0-9.6), and the mortality rate in the reference group was 0.7 (95% CI 0.3-1.3). Thyroid disease was most frequent in the alemtuzumab group (IR 109, 95% CI 75-154) but also occurred more often for AHSCT (IR 34, 95% CI 18-56) compared to the reference (IR 5.3 95% CI 3.9-7.1). The incidence of nonthyroid autoimmune disease was similar in all groups. IR for infection diagnosed >= 6 months from therapy initiation was 53 (95% CI 30-87) for alemtuzumab, 108 (95% CI 75-150) for AHSCT, and 51 (95% CI 46-57) for the reference. Conclusion We confirmed a high incidence of thyroid disease in alemtuzumab- and, to a smaller extent, AHSCT-treated patients and found a higher incidence of infection for AHSCT compared to both alemtuzumab and noninduction therapies. The incidence of nonthyroid autoimmune disease was low for both therapies. Classification of evidence This study provides Class III evidence of an increased risk of thyroid disease with alemtuzumab and an increased risk of infection with AHSCT treatment.
  • Andersen, Peter M. (författare)
  • Is all ALS genetic?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 89:3, s. 220-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity is related to cerebrovascular and brain volumetry outcomes in the RUN DMC study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 93:9, s. e864-e878
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Adiposity predictors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood leptin and total adiponectin levels were associated with components of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and brain volumetry in 503 adults with CSVD who were ≥50 years of age and enrolled in the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cohort (RUN DMC).METHODS: RUN DMC participants were followed up for 9 years (2006-2015). BMI, WC, brain imaging, and dementia diagnoses were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Adipokines were measured at baseline. Brain imaging outcomes included CSVD components, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, gray and white matter, hippocampal, total brain, and intracranial volumes.RESULTS: Cross-sectionally among men at baseline, higher BMI, WC, and leptin were associated with lower gray matter and total brain volumes, and higher BMI and WC were associated with lower hippocampal volume. At follow-up 9 years later, higher BMI was cross-sectionally associated with lower gray matter volume, and an obese WC (>102 cm) was protective for ≥1 lacune or ≥1 microbleed in men. In women, increasing BMI and overweight or obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or WC >88 cm) were associated with ≥1 lacune. Longitudinally, over 9 years, a baseline obese WC was associated with decreasing hippocampal volume, particularly in men, and increasing white matter hyperintensity volume in women and men.CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric and metabolic adiposity predictors were differentially associated with CSVD components and brain volumetry outcomes by sex. Higher adiposity is associated with a vascular-neurodegenerative spectrum among adults at risk for vascular forms of cognitive impairment and dementias.
  • Aronsson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 86:11, s. 1053-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding endovascular thrombectomy to standard care in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Methods:The cost-effectiveness analysis of endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke was based on a decision-analytic Markov model. Primary outcomes from ESCAPE, Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA), Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Revascularization With Solitaire Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in Anterior Circulation Stroke Within 8 Hours (REVASCAT), and Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) along with data from published studies and registries were used in this analysis. We used a health care payer perspective and a lifelong time horizon to estimate costs and effects.Results:The model showed that adding thrombectomy with stent retrievers to guideline-based care (including IV thrombolysis) resulted in a gain of 0.40 life-years and 0.99 quality-adjusted life-years along with a cost savings of approximately $221 per patient. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were not sensitive to changes in uncertain parameters or assumptions.Conclusions:Adding endovascular treatment to standard care resulted in substantial clinical benefits at low costs. The results were consistent throughout irrespective of whether data from ESCAPE, EXTEND-IA, MR CLEAN, REVASCAT, or SWIFT PRIME were used in this model.
  • Bahmanyar, S., et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk among patients with multiple sclerosis and their parents
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - Minneapolis, Minn. : Lancet Publications Inc.. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 72:13, s. 1170-1177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We investigated cancer risk among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether variation by age at MS diagnosis helps to elucidate mechanisms underlying the previously reported reduced cancer risk. We also studied cancer risk among parents to ascertain if MS susceptibility genes may confer protection against cancer in relatives. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age, sex, area, and socioeconomic index, estimated cancer risk among 20,276 patients with MS and 203,951 individuals without MS, using Swedish general population register data. Similar analyses were conducted among 11,284 fathers and 12,006 mothers of patients with MS, compared with 123,158 fathers and 129,409 mothers of controls. RESULTS: With an average of 35 years of follow-up, there was a decreased overall cancer risk among patients with MS (hazard ratio = 0.91, 0.87-0.95). Increased risks were observed for brain tumors (1.44, 1.21-1.72) and urinary organ cancer (1.27, 1.05-1.53). Parents of patients with MS did not have a notably increased or decreased overall cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in cancer risk in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may result from behavioral change, treatment, or we speculate that some immunologic characteristics of MS disease activity improve antitumor surveillance. The lack of association among parents indicates that a simple inherited characteristic is unlikely to explain the reduced cancer risk among patients with MS. MS is associated with increased risk for some cancers, such as of urinary organs and brain tumors (although surveillance bias may be responsible).
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