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  • Adamo, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Super star clusters in Haro 11: properties of a very young starburst and evidence for a near-infrared flux excess
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 407:2, s. 870-890
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have used multiband imaging to investigate the nature of an extreme starburst environment in the nearby Lyman break galaxy analogue Haro 11 (ESO350-IG038) by means of its stellar cluster population. The central starburst region has been observed in eight different high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) wavebands, sampling the stellar and gas components from UV to near-infrared. Photometric imaging of the galaxy was also carried out at 2.16μm by NaCo AO instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. We constructed integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for about 200 star clusters located in the active star-forming regions and compared them with single stellar population models (suitable for physical properties of very young cluster population) in order to derive ages, masses and extinctions of the star clusters. The cluster age distribution we recover confirms that the present starburst has lasted for 40Myr, and shows a peak of cluster formation only 3.5 Myr old. With such an extremely young cluster population, Haro 11 represents a unique opportunity to investigate the youngest phase of the cluster formation process and evolution in starburst systems. We looked for possible relations between cluster ages, extinctions and masses. Extinction tends to diminish as a function of the cluster age, but the spread is large and reaches the highest dispersion for clusters in partial embedded phases (<5Myr). A fraction of low-mass (below 104 Msolar), very young (1-3Myr) clusters is missing, either because they are embedded in the parental molecular cloud and heavily extinguished, or because of blending with neighbouring clusters. The range of the cluster masses is wide; we observe that more than 30 per cent of the clusters have masses above 105 Msolar, qualifying them as super star clusters. Almost half of the cluster sample is affected by flux excesses at wavelengths >8000Å which cannot be explained by simple stellar evolutionary models. Fitting SED models over all wavebands leads to systematic overestimates of cluster ages and incorrect masses for the stellar population supplying the light in these clusters. We show that the red excess affects also the HST F814W filter, which is typically used to constrain cluster physical properties. The clusters which show the red excess are younger than 40Myr we discuss possible physical explanations for the phenomenon. Finally, we estimate that Haro 11 has produced bound clusters at a rate almost a factor of 10 higher than the massive and regular spirals, like the Milky Way. The present cluster formation efficiency is ~38 per cent of the galactic star formation rate.
  • Agertz, O., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale galactic turbulence: can self-gravity drive the observed HI velocity dispersions?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 392:1, s. 294-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations of turbulent velocity dispersions in the HI component of galactic discs show a characteristic floor in galaxies with low star formation rates and within individual galaxies the dispersion profiles decline with radius. We carry out several high-resolution adaptive mesh simulations of gaseous discs embedded within dark matter haloes to explore the roles of cooling, star formation, feedback, shearing motions and baryon fraction in driving turbulent motions. In all simulations the disc slowly cools until gravitational and thermal instabilities give rise to a multiphase medium in which a large population of dense self-gravitating cold clouds are embedded within a warm gaseous phase that forms through shock heating. The diffuse gas is highly turbulent and is an outcome of large-scale driving of global non-axisymmetric modes as well as cloud-cloud tidal interactions and merging. At low star formation rates these processes alone can explain the observed HI velocity dispersion profiles and the characteristic value of similar to 10 km s(-1) observed within a wide range of disc galaxies. Supernovae feedback creates a significant hot gaseous phase and is an important driver of turbulence in galaxies with a star formation rate per unit area greater than or similar to 10(-3) M(circle dot) yr(-1) kpc(-2).
  • Axelsson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • On the origin of black hole spin in high-mass black hole binaries: Cygnus X-1
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 1365-2966 .- 0035-8711. ; 412:4, s. 2260-2264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To date, there have been several detections of high-mass black hole binaries in both the Milky Way and other galaxies. For some of these, the spin parameter of the black hole has been estimated. As many of these systems are quite tight, a suggested origin of the spin is angular momentum imparted by the synchronous rotation of the black hole progenitor with its binary companion. Using Cygnus X-1, the best studied high-mass black hole binary, we investigate this possibility. We find that such an origin of the spin is not likely, and our results point rather to the spin being the result of processes during the collapse.
  • Backstrom, E., et al. (författare)
  • The FERRUM project: metastable lifetimes in Cr II
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 1365-2966 .- 0035-8711. ; 420:2, s. 1636-1639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parity forbidden radiative transitions from metastable levels are observed in spectra of low-density astrophysical plasmas. These lines are used as probes of the physical conditions, made possible due to the long lifetime of their upper level. In a joint effort, the FERRUM project aims to obtain new and accurate atomic data for the iron-group elements, and part of this project concerns forbidden lines. The radiative lifetimes of the metastable energy levels 3 d4(a 3 D)4 s c4 D 5/2 and 3 d4(a 3 D)4 s c4 D 7/2 of singly ionized chromium have been measured. The experiment has been performed at the ion storage ring CRYRING. We employed a laser-probing technique developed for measuring long lifetimes. In this article, we present the lifetimes of these levels to be t5/2= 1.28(16) s and t7/2= 1.37(7) s, respectively. A comparison with previous theoretical work shows good agreement and the result is discussed in a theoretical context.
  • Casassus, S., et al. (författare)
  • A centimetre-wave excess over free-free emission in planetary nebulae
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 382:4, s. 1607-1622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a centimetre-wave (cm-wave, 5-31 GHz) excess over free-free emission in planetary nebulae (PNe). Accurate 31- and 250-GHz measurements show that the 31-GHz flux densities in our sample are systematically higher than the level of optically thin free-free continuum extrapolated from 250-GHz. The 31-GHz excess is observed, within one standard deviation, in all 18 PNe with reliable 31- and 250-GHz data, and is significant in nine PNe. The only exception is the peculiar object M2-9, whose radio spectrum is that of an optically thick stellar wind. On average the fraction of non-free-free emission represents 51 per cent of the total flux density at 31 GHz, with a scatter of 11 per cent. The average 31-250 GHz spectral index of our sample is = -0.43 +/- 0.03 (in flux density, with a scatter of 0.14). The 31-250 GHz drop is reminiscent of the anomalous foreground observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments. The 5-31 GHz spectral indices are consistent with both flat spectra and spinning dust emissivities, given the 10 per cent calibration uncertainty of the comparison 5-GHz data. However, a detailed study of the objects with the largest cm-excess, including the low-frequency data available in the literature, shows that present spinning dust models alone cannot explain the cm-wave excess in PNe. Although we have no definitive interpretation of our data, the least implausible explanation involves a synchrotron component absorbed by a cold nebular screen. We give flux densities for 37 objects at 31 GHz, and for 26 objects at 250 GHz.
  • Casu, S., et al. (författare)
  • The diffuse clouds towards Cyg OB2 No. 5 and No. 12
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 359:1, s. 73-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have investigated, in the 13CO(1-0) line, the region between the stars Cyg OB2 No. 5 and No, 12. The integrated intensity contour map reveals the existence of a condensation at 12 km s-1 (core C), north-west of Cyg OB2 No. 5, with a core-halo structure. The morphology and the derived physical parameters make it quite similar to core A, previously discovered towards Cyg OB2 No. 12. A second condensation at 7 km s -1, near Cyg OB2 No. 12, has been mapped in the same line (1-0) of 13CO. A summary of different observations, in all spectral regions, towards Cyg OB2 No. 5 and No. 12 is presented to provide the material for a further comprehensive discussion of this intricate and still intriguing region.
  • Chugaǐ, N.N., et al. (författare)
  • The type IIn supernova 1994W: Evidence for the explosive ejection of a circumstellar envelope
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 352:4, s. 1213-1231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present and analyse spectra of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 1994W obtained between 18 and 203d after explosion. During the luminous phase (first 100 d) the line profiles are composed of three major components: (i) narrow P-Cygni lines with the absorption minima at -700 km s -1; (ii) broad emission lines with blue velocity at zero intensity ∼4000km s -1; and (iii) broad, smooth wings extending out to at least ∼5000kms -1, most apparent in Hα. These components are identified with an expanding circumstellar (CS) envelope, shocked cool gas in the forward post-shock region, and multiple Thomson scattering in the CS envelope, respectively. The absence of broad P-Cygni lines from the SN is the result of the formation of an optically thick, cool, dense shell at the interface of the ejecta and the CS envelope. Models of the SN deceleration and Thomson scattering wings are used to recover the density (n ≈ 10 9cm -3), radial extent [∼(4-5) × 10 15cm] and Thomson optical depth (τ T ≳ 2.5) of the CS envelope during the first month. The plateau-like SN light curve is reproduced by a hydrodynamical model and is found to be powered by a combination of internal energy leakage after the explosion of an extended pre-SN (∼10 15 cm) and subsequent luminosity from CS interaction. The pre-explosion kinematics of the CS envelope is recovered, and is close to homologous expansion with outer velocity ∼1100 km s -1 and a kinematic age of ∼1.5 yr. The high mass (∼0.4M⊙) and kinetic energy (∼2 × 10 48 erg) of the CS envelope, combined with low age, strongly suggest that the CS envelope was explosively ejected ∼1.5 yr prior to the SN explosion.
  • Curran, S.J., et al. (författare)
  • On the absence of molecular absorption in high-redshift millimetre-band searches
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 416:3, s. 2143-2153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have undertaken a search for millimetre-waveband absorption (through the CO and HCO(+) rotational transitions) in the host galaxies of reddened radio sources (z = 0.405-1.802). Despite the colour selection (optical-near-infrared colours of V - K greater than or similar to 5 in all but one source), no absorption was found in any of the eight quasars for which the background continuum flux was detected. On the basis of the previous (mostly intervening) H(2) and OH detections, the limits reached here and in some previous surveys should be deep enough to detect molecular absorption according to their V - K colours. However, our survey makes the assumption that the reddening is associated with dust close to the emission redshift of the quasar and that the narrow millimetre component of this emission is intercepted by the compact molecular cores. By using the known millimetre absorbers to define the colour depth and comparing this with the ultraviolet luminosities of the sources, we find that, even if these assumptions are valid, only 12 of the 40 objects (mainly from this work) are potentially detectable. This is assuming an excitation temperature of T(x) = 10 K at z = 0, with the number decreasing with increasing temperatures (to zero detectable at T(x) greater than or similar to 100 K).
  • Curran, S.J., et al. (författare)
  • Redshifted H I and OH absorption in radio galaxies and quasars
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 413:2, s. 1165-1173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From a survey for the redshifted H i 21-cm and OH 18-cm absorption in the hosts of a sample of radio galaxies and quasars, we detect H i in three of the 10 and OH in none of the 14 sources for which useful data were obtained. As expected from our recent result, all of the 21-cm detections occur in sources with ultraviolet (UV) continuum luminosities of L(UV) 1023 W Hz-1. Our 21-cm detections in combination with those previously published give a total of eight (associated and intervening) H i-absorbing sources searched and undetected in OH. Using the detected 21-cm line strengths to normalize the limits, we find that only two of these eight sources may have been searched sufficiently deeply in OH, even though these are marginal.
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