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  • Ahmed, Niaz, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of intravenous nimodipine on blood pressure and outcome after acute stroke
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 31:6, s. 1250-1255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-The Intravenous Nimodipine West European Stroke Trial (INWEST) found a correlation between nimodipine-induced reduction in blood pressure (BP) and an unfavorable outcome in acute stroke. We sought to confirm this correlation with and without adjustment for prognostic variables and to investigate outcome in subgroups with increasing levels of BP reduction. Methods-Patients with a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke (within 24 hours) were consecutively allocated to receive placebo (n=100), 1 mg/h (low-dose) nimodipine (n=101), or 2 mg/h (high-dose) nimodipine (n=94). The correlation between average BP change during the first 2 days and the outcome at day 21 was analysed. Results-Two hundred sixty-five patients were included in this analysis (n=92, 93, and 80 for placebo, low dose, and high dose. respectively). Nimodipine treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from baseline compared with placebo during the first few days. In multivariate analysis, a significant correlation between DBP reduction and worsening of the neurological score was round for the high-close group (beta=0.49, P=0.048). Patients with a DBP reduction of greater than or equal to 20% in the high-dose group had a significantly increased adjusted OR for the compound outcome variable death or dependency (Barthel Index <60) (n/N=25/26, OR 10.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 101.74) and death alone (n/N=9/26, OR 4.3361 95% CI 1.131 16.619) compared with all placebo patients (n/N=62/92 and 14/92. respectively). There was no correlation between SEP change and outcome. Conclusions-DBP, but not SEP, reduction was associated with neurological worsening after the intravenous administration of high-dose nimodipine after acute stroke. For low-dose nimodipine, the results were not conclusive. These results do not confirm or exclude a neuroprotective property of nimodipine.
  • Aho, Leena, et al. (författare)
  • Beta-amyloid aggregation in human brains with cerebrovascular lesions.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 37:12, s. 2940-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study assessed beta-amyloid (Abeta) protein aggregates in postmortem human brains in subjects who had experienced stroke to examine the proposed association between ischemic stress and the accumulation of Abeta reported in rodents. METHODS: A sample of 484 postmortem brains from nondemented subjects, lacking isocortical neurodegenerative pathology with verified cerebrovascular lesions, and 57 age-matched controls were assessed with respect to Abeta, Abeta40, and Abeta42 aggregates in the cortex and thalamus by immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: The load of Abeta aggregates did not display a significant association with cerebrovascular lesions. The load of Abeta, Abeta40, and Abeta42 aggregates increased with age, and there was a tendency toward higher odds ratios for Abeta aggregates, though not statistically significant, in subjects with acute cerebrovascular lesions. In the oldest subjects with cerebrovascular lesions and with both thalamic and cortical Abeta aggregates, the load of thalamic Abeta42 was significantly higher than the load of Abeta40. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cerebrovascular disease does not influence the load of Abeta, whereas a shift of aggregation from the Abeta40 to the Abeta42 residue is noted in the thalamus but only in aged subjects. It is impossible, however, to state whether this result is attributable to increased Abeta production, its insufficient elimination, or other susceptibility factors.
  • Amarenco, Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Added to Aspirin in Acute Nonsevere Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack of Atherosclerotic Origin
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 51:12, s. 3504-3513
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose:Among patients with a transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic strokes, those with ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis of cervicocranial vasculature have the highest risk of recurrent vascular events.Methods:In the double-blind THALES (The Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Ticagrelor and ASA for Prevention of Stroke and Death) trial, we randomized patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke, or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2–30) or placebo added to aspirin (300–325 mg on day 1 followed by 75–100 mg daily for days 2–30) within 24 hours of symptom onset. The present paper reports a prespecified analysis in patients with and without ipsilateral, potentially causal atherosclerotic stenosis ≥30% of cervicocranial vasculature. The primary end point was time to the occurrence of stroke or death within 30 days.Results:Of 11 016 randomized patients, 2351 (21.3%) patients had an ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis. After 30 days, a primary end point occurred in 92/1136 (8.1%) patients with ipsilateral stenosis randomized to ticagrelor and in 132/1215 (10.9%) randomized to placebo (hazard ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56–0.96], P=0.023) resulting in a number needed to treat of 34 (95% CI, 19–171). In patients without ipsilateral stenosis, the corresponding event rate was 211/4387 (4.8%) and 230/4278 (5.4%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.74–1.08]; P=0.23, Pinteraction=0.245). Severe bleeding occurred in 4 (0.4%) and 3 (0.2%) patients with ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis on ticagrelor and on placebo, respectively (P=NS), and in 24 (0.5%) and 4 (0.1%), respectively, in 8665 patients without ipsilateral stenosis (hazard ratio=5.87 [95% CI, 2.04–16.9], P=0.001).Conclusions:In this exploratory analysis comparing ticagrelor added to aspirin to aspirin alone, we found no treatment by ipsilateral atherosclerosis stenosis subgroup interaction but did identify a higher absolute risk and a greater absolute risk reduction of stroke or death at 30 days in patients with ipsilateral atherosclerosis stenosis than in those without. In this easily identified population, ticagrelor added to aspirin provided a clinically meaningful benefit with a number needed to treat of 34 (95% CI, 19–171).
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heart failure and stroke
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 37:7, s. 1637-1637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in stroke epidemiology : a systematic review
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 40:4, s. 1082-1090
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies, mainly based on Western European surveys, have shown that stroke is more common in men than in women. In recent years, sex-specific data on stroke incidence, prevalence, subtypes, severity and case-fatality have become available from other parts of the world. The purpose of this article is to give a worldwide review on sex differences in stroke epidemiology. METHODS: We searched PubMed, tables-of-contents, review articles, and reference lists for community-based studies including information on sex differences. In some areas, such as secular trends, ischemic subtypes and stroke severity, noncommunity-based studies were also reviewed. Male/female ratios were calculated. RESULTS: We found 98 articles that contained relevant sex-specific information, including 59 incidence studies from 19 countries and 5 continents. The mean age at first-ever stroke was 68.6 years among men, and 72.9 years among women. Male stroke incidence rate was 33% higher and stroke prevalence was 41% higher than the female, with large variations between age bands and between populations. The incidence rates of brain infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage were higher among men, whereas the rate of subarachnoidal hemorrhage was higher among women, although this difference was not statistically significant. Stroke tended to be more severe in women, with a 1-month case fatality of 24.7% compared with 19.7% for men. CONCLUSIONS: Worldwide, stroke is more common among men, but women are more severely ill. The mismatch between the sexes is larger than previously described.
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • To Treat or Not to Treat : Anticoagulants as Secondary Preventives to the Oldest Old With Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 48:6, s. 1617-1622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Anticoagulant treatment is effective for preventing recurrent ischemic strokes in patients who have atrial fibrillation. This benefit is paid by a small increase of hemorrhages. Anticoagulant-related hemorrhages seem to increase with age, but there are few studies showing whether the benefits of treatment persist in old age.Methods-For this observational study, 4 different registers were used, among them Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Register. Patients who have had a recent ischemic stroke, were 80 to 100 years of age, and had atrial fibrillation, were included from 2006 through 2013. The patients were stratified into 3 age groups: 80 to 84, 85 to 89, and ?90 years of age. Information on stroke severity, risk factors, drugs, and comorbidities was gathered from the registers. The patients were followed with respect to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, other hemorrhages, or death.Results-Of all 23 356 patients with atrial fibrillation, 6361 (27%) used anticoagulants after an ischemic stroke. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with less recurrent ischemic stroke in all age groups. Hemorrhages increased most in the >= 90-year age group, but this did not offset the overall beneficial effect of the anticoagulant. Apart from age, no other cardiovascular risk factor or comorbidity was identified that influenced the risk of anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. Drugs other than anticoagulants did not influence the incidence of major hemorrhage.Conclusions-Given the patient characteristics in this study, there is room for more patients to be treated with anticoagulants, without hemorrhages to prevail. In nonagenarians, hemorrhages increased somewhat more, but this did not affect the overall outcome in this age stratum.
  • Asplund, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Country comparisons of human stroke research since 2001 : a bibliometric study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 43:3, s. 830-837
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This is the first bibliometric comparison between countries of the development of stroke research over time. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological articles on stroke published 2001 to mid-2011 were identified in Science Citation Index Expanded. Article fractions, citation fractions, h-index, and international collaboration were calculated using the BibExcel software and adjusted for population size and gross domestic product. RESULTS: The United States dominated with 28.7% of the sum of article fractions and 36.2% of the sum of citation fractions. The United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany together accounted for 52.1% of articles and 61.0% of citations. When adjusted for population size or gross domestic product, several small European countries, together with Israel and Taiwan, ranked the highest. Per population, there was a negative association (r=0.60) between burden of stroke (disability-adjusted life-years lost) and number of articles per population. In China, South Korea, and Singapore, the annual growth of stroke articles was more than twice the worldwide average. Whereas multinational collaboration was common within Europe and North America, it was relatively uncommon between Asian countries. CONCLUSIONS: The Big 4 in scientific literature on stroke, as to both number of articles and citations, are the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. Many small European countries have, in relation to their size, a high scientific production. Several countries with rapidly expanding economies have very fast growth of scientific production on stroke. Our results emphasize the need for stroke research in countries with a high population burden of stroke and they highlight the role of multinational collaboration.
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