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  • Löfsten, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Science Parks and the growth of new technology-based firms : academic-industry links, innovation and markets
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 31:6, s. 859-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The analysis distinguishes between firms (273 firms) on and off Science Parks in Sweden (1996-1998), in an effort to identify any element of added value which the park provides for new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The study showed some differences between the experience of firms on- and off-park in respect to innovation and marketing issues. Firms located in Science Parks were significantly more likely to have a link with a local university than off-park firms. Performance is examined under three headings: employment growth, sales growth and profitability. Initiatives to promote NTBFs on Science Parks, will yield a higher rate of job creation than policies to help NTBFs in general.
  • McKelvey, Maureen, et al. (författare)
  • Does co-location matter for formal knowledge collaboration in the Swedish biotechnology-pharmaceutical sector?
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 32:3, s. 483-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article addresses the validity of assumptions about the importance of co-locality for innovation, by analyzing whether or not co-location matters for formal knowledge collaboration in the Swedish biotechnology-pharmaceutical sector, or biotech-pharma sector. The population of Swedish biotech-pharma firms has been defined, based on the three criteria of geographical location, their engagement in active knowledge development, and their specialized knowledge/product focus. The firms' patterns of regional, national and international collaboration with other firms and with universities is analyzed, as well as the differing collaborative patterns of small versus large firm. In addressing the theoretical questions about the relative importance of co-location for innovation, the article also provides an empirical overview of the Swedish biotech-pharma sector, especially trends over time. This paper thus contributes to the literature by expanding our empirical knowledge about one European biotech-pharma sectoral system, e.g. Sweden, as well as addressing the theoretical question about the relative importance of co-location for formal knowledge collaboration. ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Prencipe, A., et al. (författare)
  • Inter-project learning : Processes and outcomes of knowledge codification in project-based firms
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 30:9, s. 1373-1394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we argue that the literature on knowledge codification has been overly concerned with the economic properties of its outcomes, neglecting the importance of its underlying learning processes. Following Zollo and Winter [Organisation Science, 2001, in press], the paper distinguishes three learning processes: experience accumulation, knowledge articulation and knowledge codification and suggests a framework to analyse the learning abilities of project-based firms. We propose that mechanisms for inter-project learning draw upon these learning processes and can be found at various levels of the project-based firm. Using empirical evidence from six case studies, we discern three empirical patterns, that we defined learning landscapes, of such mechanisms. Implications for the literature and practice of knowledge codification are discussed. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
  • Adler, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • The Challenge of Managing Boundary-Spanning Research Activities: Experiences from the Swedish Context: The challenge of managing boundary spanning research
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 38:7, s. 1136-1149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Contemporary and future challenges when managing research involve coping with emerging prerequisites which include, among other things, a new knowledge production discourse, new research funding methods and new ways for international collaboration. Managers for boundary-spanning research activities need to combine the sometimes opposing logics and perspectives of the multiple stakeholders-the individual researchers searching for independence, sustainability and freedom and others searching for integration, relevance and predictability. Based on a collaborative research set-up including interviews, discussions and workshops with major Swedish research funding agencies, research program managers, experienced industry partners and key stakeholders, the paper identifies six main managerial challenges: (i) lack of focus on research management and unsatisfying prerequisites, (ii) weak identity and low status of the role of the research managers, (iii) few incentives for research management, (iv) lack of leadership development opportunities for researchers, (v) multiple (and sometimes contradictory) expectations from different stakeholders, and (vi) sustained funding. Finally, the managerial implications of these challenges for universities and funding agencies are discussed.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Acquisitions of start-ups by incumbent businesses A market selection process of "high-quality" entrants?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - Elsevier. - 0048-7333. ; 45:1, s. 272-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze the frequency and nature by which new firms are acquired by established businesses. Acquisitions are often considered to reflect a technology transfer process and to also constitute one way in which a "symbiosis" between new technology-based firms (NTBFs) and established businesses is realized. Using a micro-level dataset for Sweden in which we follow new entrants up to 18 years after entry, we show that acquisitions of recent start-ups are rare and restricted to a small group of entrants with defining characteristics. Estimates from competing risks models show that acquired start-ups, in particular by multinational enterprises (MNEs), stand out from entrants that either remain independent or exit by being much more likely to be spin-offs operating in high-tech sectors, having strong technological competence, and having weak internal financial resources. Our overall findings support the argument that acquisitions primarily concern NTBFs in market contexts where entry costs are large, access to finance is important and incumbents have valuable complementary capabilities and resources. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • R&D strategies and entrepreneurial spawning
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 41:1, s. 54-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyzes how different R&D strategies of incumbent firms affect the quantity and quality of their entrepreneurial spawning. When examining entrepreneurial ventures of ex-employees of firms with different R&D strategies, three things emerge: First, firms with persistent R&D investments and a general superiority in sales, exports, productivity, profitability and wages are less likely to generate entrepreneurs than firms with temporary or no R&D investments. Second, start-ups from knowledge intensive business service (RIBS) firms with persistent R&D investments have a significantly increased probability of survival. No corresponding association between the R&D strategies of incumbents and survival of entrepreneurial spawns is found for incumbents in manufacturing sectors. Third, spin-outs from KIBS-firms are more likely to survive if they start in the same sector, indicating the importance of inherited knowledge. These findings suggest that R&D intensive firms are less likely to generate employee start-ups, but their entrepreneurial spawns tend to be of higher quality.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • The economic microgeography of diversity and specialization externalities – firm-level evidence from Swedish cities
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - Elsevier. - 0048-7333. ; 48:6, s. 1385-1398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We employ finely geo-coded firm-level panel data to assess the long-standing question whether agglomeration economies derive from specialization (within-industry), diversity (between-industry) or overall density. Rather than treating the city as a single unit, we focus our analysis on how the inner industry structures of cities influence firm-level productivity. Our results illustrate the co-existence of several externalities that differ in their spatial distribution and attenuation within cities. First, we find robust positive effects of neighborhood-level specialization on TFP as well as a small effect of diversity at the same fine spatial level. These effects are highly localized and dissipate beyond the immediate within-city neighborhood level. Second, we also find that firms benefit from the overall density of the wider city. The results emphasize the relevance of “opening up” cities to study the workings of their inner organization and support the idea that location in a within-city industry cluster in a diversified and dense city boosts productivity. 
  • Asheim, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Knowledge bases and Regional Innovation Systems: Comparing Nordic Clusters.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - Elsevier. - 0048-7333. ; 34:8, s. 1173-1190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The analysis of the importance of different types of regional innovation systems must take place within a context of the actual knowledge base of various industries in the economy, as the innovation processes of firms are strongly shaped by their specific knowledge base. In this paper, we shall distinguish between two types of knowledge base: analytical and synthetic. These types indicate different mixes of tacit and codified knowledge, codification possibilities and limits, qualifications and skills, required organisations and institutions involved, as well as specific competitive challenges from a globalising economy, which have different implications for different sectors of industry, and, thus, for the kind of innovation support needed. The traditional constellation of industrial clusters surrounded by innovation supporting organisations, constituting a regional innovation system, is nearly always to be found in contexts of industries with a synthetic knowledge base (e.g. engineering-based industries), while the existence of regional innovation systems as an integral part of a cluster will normally be the case of industries-based on an analytical knowledge base (e.g. science-based industries, such as IT and bio-tech). In the discussion of different types of regional innovation systems five empirical illustrations from a Nordic comparative project on SMEs and regional innovation systems will be used: the furniture industry in Salling, Denmark; the wireless communication industry in North Jutland, Denmark; the functional food industry in Scania, Sweden; the food industry in Rogaland, Norway and the electronics industry in Horten, Norway. We argue that in terms of innovation policy the regional level often provides a grounded approach embedded in networks of actors acknowledging the importance of the knowledge base of an industry.
  • Azagra-Caro, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic interactions between university-industry knowledge transfer channels: A case study of the most highly cited academic patent
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 46:2, s. 463-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines the succession of formal and informal channels of university-industry knowledge transfer, and the local economic impact of their dynamic interaction. To do so, we investigate a highly cited university patent over an extended period of time through a case study methodology. Our work provides three fundamental insights. First, local economic impact can be achieved only after a complex, temporally unfolding sequence of interactions between formal and informal channels of knowledge transfer. Second, in the course of this dynamic interaction, knowledge generated during formal transfer activities may be transferred via informal channels. Third, the method developed can provide information on the variety of knowledge transfer channels related to highly cited patents. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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