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1.
  • Almqvist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • Association between parental age and asthma in a population-based register study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0091-6749. ; 136:4, s. 1103-1105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a nationwide population-based study with family design, we found an association between decreasing parental age and asthma in early childhood. The effect was independent of familial and potentially confounding factors.
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3.
  • Mitselou, Niki, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and risk of food allergy : Nationwide Swedish cohort study of more than 1 million children
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Stockholm : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 142:5, s. 1510-1514e.2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about early-life risk factors for food allergy in children.Objectives: We examined the association between perinatal characteristics and future risk of food allergy in offspring.Methods: This nationwide Swedish cohort study of 1,086,378 children born in Sweden in 2001-2012 used prospectively recorded data from health care registers. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for the association between perinatal characteristics (eg, cesarean delivery and preterm birth) and food allergy as defined by diagnoses in the National Patient Register, adjusting for infant sex and maternal factors (age at delivery, country of birth, parity, smoking, body mass index, and asthma/pulmonary disease).Results: During the 13-year follow-up, 26,732 (2.5%) children were given a diagnosis of food allergy. Food allergy was positively associated with cesarean delivery (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.25), large for gestational age (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), and low 5-minute Apgar score (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36) but negatively associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98). No association was found between food allergy and moderately preterm birth, low birth weight, or small for gestational age. Risk estimates were similar when the outcome was restricted to 2 records of diagnosed food allergy. In 1,000 children undergoing cesarean delivery, an extra 5 developed food allergy compared with the reference group, suggesting that 17% of food allergy in children born by means of cesarean delivery can be explained by this exposure (attributable fraction).Conclusions: Cesarean delivery was associated with increased risk of food allergy, whereas very preterm birth decreased risk.
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4.
  • Almqvist, C, et al. (författare)
  • School as a risk environment for children allergic to cats and a site for transfer of cat allergen to homes
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 103:6, s. 1012-1017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Many children are allergic to furred pets and avoid direct pet contact. The school may be a site of indirect exposure to pet allergens, which may induce or maintain symptoms of allergic diseases.OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate airborne levels of cat allergen (Fel d 1) at schools and in homes with or without cats and to study clothes as a route for dissemination of allergens between homes and school.METHODS: Airborne cat allergen was collected with personal samplers from (1) children attending classes with many (>25%) or few (<10%) cat owners and (2) homes with or without cats. A recently developed amplified ELISA assay, which detects low levels of airborne cat allergen in pet-free environments, was used. Dust samples were collected from clothes and mattresses.RESULTS: There was a 5-fold difference in the median levels of airborne cat allergen between classes with many and few cat owners (2.94 vs 0.59 ng/m3; P <.001). The median airborne cat allergen concentration in classes with many cat owners was significantly higher than that found in the homes of non-cat owners (P <.001) but lower than that found in homes with cats (P <.001). Allergen levels in non-cat owners' clothes increased after a school day (P <.001). Non-cat owners in classes with many cat owners had higher levels of mattress-bound cat allergen (P =.01).CONCLUSION: The results indicate significant exposure to cat allergen at school. Allergen is spread through clothing from homes with cats to classrooms. There the allergen is dispersed in air and contaminates the clothes of children without cats. The allergen levels in non-cat owners' homes correlate with exposure to cat allergen at school.
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5.
  • Carlson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Secretion of granule proteins from eosinophils and neutrophils is increased in asthma
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 87:1 Pt 1, s. 27-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The activity of eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes with respect to secretion of granule proteins was studied in 30 patients with asthma and with varying severity of their disease. Granulocytes were stimulated with serum-opsonized Sephadex particles, and the released amount of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX), and myeloperoxidase was measured by means of specific radioimmunoassays. Eosinophils from patients with asthma released significantly more (p less than 0.001) ECP and EPX after 20 minutes of incubation than cells from control subjects without asthma. The release of myeloperoxidase from neutrophils was also somewhat higher (p less than 0.03). The serum concentrations of ECP and EPX were also significantly increased (p less than 0.001) in the group with asthma. No significant relationships were found between clinical variables and the secretory activity of either eosinophils or neutrophils. We conclude that eosinophils and, to some extent, neutrophils from subjects with asthma have an increased propensity to release their granule proteins, which we suggest is a consequence of priming of these cells.
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7.
  • Håkansson, L, et al. (författare)
  • Migratory responses of eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes from patients with asthma
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 85:4, s. 743-750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study the migratory function of eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes from patients with asthma were investigated. Fifty-seven patients with asthmatic disease of varying severity were included. Eosinophil and neutrophil chemotactic responses to 5% pooled normal human serum (NHS), 5% allergen-challenge serum, 2.5% zymosan-activated serum, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (10 nmol/L), chemokinetic responses to albumin (2 gm/L) and 5% NHS, and the eosinophil and neutrophil chemotactic and chemokinetic activities of serum were investigated. Eosinophils from patients with asthma demonstrated significantly (p less than 0.02) increased chemotactic responses to allergen-challenge serum, zymosan-activated serum, and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, compared with eosinophils from references. The chemokinetic responses to albumin and NHS were increased (p less than 0.01) by eosinophils from the patients who had blood eosinophilia (greater than 400 X 10(6)/L). Sera from the patients with asthma demonstrated raised eosinophil chemotactic activity (p less than 0.001) and raised eosinophil and neutrophil chemokinetic activity (p less than 0.001). The eosinophil chemokinetic activity of serum was correlated to the relative peak expiratory flow rate of the patients (r = -0.43; p less than 0.02). The increased migratory responses were specific for the eosinophils, since the migratory responses of their neutrophils were not altered compared with that of the references. These results suggest that the eosinophils from the patients with asthma had been exposed to a priming mechanism in vivo.
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8.
  • Håkansson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Priming of eosinophil adhesion in patients with birch pollen allergy during pollen season : effect of immunotherapy
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 99:4, s. 551-562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adhesion of eosinophil granulocytes to E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was investigated before and during birch pollen season in 24 patients allergic to birch pollen who had rhinoconjunctivitis and, in half of the cases, asthma during season. Half of the patients were undergoing specific immunotherapy for birch pollen allergy. Increased adhesion to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (p < 0.05) during season as compared with before season was demonstrated by eosinophils of patients in the control group and by eosinophils of the patients without asthma treated with immunotherapy, but not by eosinophils from the immunotherapy-treated patients with asthma. Eosinophils from the control group of patients demonstrated increased cell surface expression of CD18 and CD49d (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) during season as compared with before season, and eosinophils from the immunotherapy-treated patients showed increased cell surface expression of CD49d (p < 0.01) during season. Simultaneous measurement of neutrophil adhesion revealed increased adhesion to E-selectin and ICAM-1 (p < 0.01) during season compared with before season in the immunotherapy-treated group of patients. Neutrophils from the control subjects without asthma showed increased adhesion to E-selectin (p < 0.05) during season. In conclusion, eosinophils from patients allergic to birch pollen demonstrated priming of the adhesion to VCAM-1 to ICAM-1 during birch pollen season. Immunotherapy treatment prevented the priming of eosinophil adhesion during pollen season in the patients allergic to birch pollen who had asthma, but not in those without asthma. In contrast, neutrophils from the immunotherapy-treated patients, both with and without asthma, demonstrated priming of the adhesion to E-selectin and ICAM-1 during season. The latter results indicate that immunotherapy, in case of the patients allergic to birch pollen with asthma induced a shift from the production of primarily eosinophil priming agents to primarily neutrophil priming agents, which may be caused by a shift from Th2 to Th1 lymphocytes.
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10.
  • Jenmalm, Maria, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to cow's milk during the first 3 months of life is associated with increased levels of IgG subclass antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin to 8 years
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 102, s. 671-678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Exposure to allergens early in life influences the development of allergen-specific immune responses. In animal models, the development of tolerance to proteins delivered to the gastrointestinal and the respiratory mucosa is influenced by age and genetic background. Late introduction of cow's milk in infants is associated with slower increase and lower peak IgG antibody responses to milk during early childhood, but the long-term effects have not been investigated, nor is the relation to atopic disease later in life clear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of IgG subclass antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin in relation to early exposure to cow's milk, atopic heredity, and the development of atopic disease. METHODS: IgG subclass antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin were analyzed by ELISA at birth, at 6 and 18 months, and at 8 years in 96 children followed prospectively. RESULTS: The levels of IgG subclass antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin peaked in early childhood and then declined up to 8 years of age. Exposure to cow's milk during the first 3 months of life was associated with high IgG subclass antibody levels to beta-lactoglobulin up to 8 years, particularly in children with maternal atopy. Children with atopic symptoms and sensitivity to allergens often had high levels of IgG4 antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin at 8 years of age, even if they were not exposed to cow's milk during the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis was associated with high levels of IgG subclass antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin in early childhood. CONCLUSIONS: IgG subclass antibody levels to milk peak during early infancy, with particularly high levels in children with atopic dermatitis, and decline thereafter. Exposure to cow's milk during early infancy has long-lasting effects on the humoral antigen-specific responses, indicating less effective tolerance-inducing mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa during the first months of life.
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