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  • Andersson, Karin M., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of two commercial CT metal artifact reduction algorithms for use in proton radiotherapy treatment planning in the head and neck area
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - : WILEY. - 0094-2405. ; 45:10, s. 4329-4344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To evaluate two commercial CT metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms for use in proton treatment planning in the head and neck (H&N) area.Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with removable metallic implants (dental fillings or neck implant) was CT-scanned to evaluate the O-MAR (Philips) and the iMAR (Siemens) algorithms. Reference images were acquired without any metallic implants in place. Water equivalent thickness (WET) was calculated for different path directions and compared between image sets. Images were also evaluated for use in proton treatment planning for parotid, tonsil, tongue base, and neck node targets. The beams were arranged so as to not traverse any metal prior to the target, enabling evaluation of the impact on dose calculation accuracy from artifacts surrounding the metal volume. Plans were compared based on analysis (1 mm distance-to-agreement/1% difference in local dose) and dose volume histogram metrics for targets and organs at risk (OARs). Visual grading evaluation of 30 dental implant patient MAR images was performed by three radiation oncologists.Results: In the dental fillings images, WET along a low-density streak was reduced from -17.0 to -4.3 mm with O-MAR and from -16.1 mm to -2.3 mm with iMAR, while for other directions the deviations were increased or approximately unchanged when the MAR algorithms were used. For the neck implant images, WET was generally reduced with MAR but residual deviations remained (of up to -2.3 mm with O-MAR and of up to -1.5 mm with iMAR). The analysis comparing proton dose distributions for uncorrected/MAR plans and corresponding reference plans showed passing rates >98% of the voxels for all phantom plans. However, substantial dose differences were seen in areas of most severe artifacts ( passing rates of down to 89% for some cases). MAR reduced the deviations in some cases, but not for all plans. For a single patient case dosimetrically evaluated, minor dose differences were seen between the uncorrected and MAR plans ( passing rate approximately 97%). The visual grading of patient images showed that MAR significantly improved image quality (P < 0.001).Conclusions: O-MAR and iMAR significantly improved image quality in terms of anatomical visualization for target and OAR delineation in dental implant patient images. WET calculations along several directions, all outside the metallic regions, showed that both uncorrected and MAR images contained metal artifacts which could potentially lead to unacceptable errors in proton treatment planning. WET was reduced by MAR in some areas, while increased or unchanged deviations were seen for other path directions. The proton treatment plans created for the phantom images showed overall acceptable dose distributions differences when compared to the reference cases, both for the uncorrected and MAR images. However, substantial dose distribution differences in the areas of most severe artifacts were seen for some plans, which were reduced by MAR in some cases but not all. In conclusion, MAR could be beneficial to use for proton treatment planning; however, case-by-case evaluations of the metal artifact-degraded images are always recommended.
  • Atefi, Seyed Reza, et al. (författare)
  • Intracranial haemorrhage alters scalp potential distributions in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring applications : preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medical Physics. - : American Association of Physicists in Medicine. - 2473-4209 .- 0094-2405. ; 43:2, s. 675-686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Methods: Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental leftright hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean leftright scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch ttest. Results: The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the leftright scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Realistic, proof-of-concept simulations confirmed that ICH affects quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. Pilot clinical observations with the authors custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer also showed higher leftright potential differences in the presence of ICH, similar to those of their simulations, that may help to distinguish healthy subjects from ICH patients. Although these pilot clinical observations are in agreement with the computer simulations, the small sample size of this study lacks statistical power to exclude the influence of other possible confounders such as age, ex, and electrode positioning. The agreement with previously published simulation-based and clinical results, however, suggests that EBI technology may be potentially useful for ICH detection. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
  • Benmakhlouf, Hamza, et al. (författare)
  • Output correction factors for nine small field detectors in 6 MV radiation therapy photon beams : A PENELOPE Monte Carlo study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - 0094-2405. ; 41:4, s. 041711-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To determine detector-specific output correction factors, k(Qclin,Qmsr)(fclin,fmsr) in 6 MV small photon beams for air and liquid ionization chambers, silicon diodes, and diamond detectors from two manufacturers. Methods: Field output factors, defined according to the international formalism published by Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)], relate the dosimetry of small photon beams to that of the machine-specific reference field; they include a correction to measured ratios of detector readings, conventionally used as output factors in broad beams. Output correction factors were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) system with a statistical uncertainty (type-A) of 0.15% or lower. The geometries of the detectors were coded using blueprints provided by the manufacturers, and phase-space files for field sizes between 0.5 x 0.5 cm(2) and 10 x 10 cm(2) from a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV linac used as sources. The output correction factors were determined scoring the absorbed dose within a detector and to a small water volume in the absence of the detector, both at a depth of 10 cm, for each small field and for the reference beam of 10 x 10 cm(2). Results: The Monte Carlo calculated output correction factors for the liquid ionization chamber and the diamond detector were within about +/- 1% of unity even for the smallest field sizes. Corrections were found to be significant for small air ionization chambers due to their cavity dimensions, as expected. The correction factors for silicon diodes varied with the detector type (shielded or un-shielded), confirming the findings by other authors; different corrections for the detectors from the two manufacturers were obtained. The differences in the calculated factors for the various detectors were analyzed thoroughly and whenever possible the results were compared to published data, often calculated for different accelerators and using the EGSnrc MC system. The differences were used to estimate a type-B uncertainty for the correction factors. Together with the type-A uncertainty from the Monte Carlo calculations, an estimation of the combined standard uncertainty was made, assigned to the mean correction factors from various estimates. Conclusions: The present work provides a consistent and specific set of data for the output correction factors of a broad set of detectors in a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV accelerator and contributes to improving the understanding of the physics of small photon beams. The correction factors cannot in general be neglected for any detector and, as expected, their magnitude increases with decreasing field size. Due to the reduced number of clinical accelerator types currently available, it is suggested that detector output correction factors be given specifically for linac models and field sizes, rather than for a beam quality specifier that necessarily varies with the accelerator type and field size due to the different electron spot dimensions and photon collimation systems used by each accelerator model. (C) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
  • Candela-Juan, C., et al. (författare)
  • Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - : American Association of Physicists in Medicine: Medical Physics. - 0094-2405. ; 42:5, s. 2132-2142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, Ra-226 was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two Ra-226 sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose-effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg Ra-226 tube and a 10 mg Ra-226 needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a Ra-226 point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including gL(r), F(r,theta), Lambda, and s(K)] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that the uncertainty associated to the absorbed dose within the treatment volume is 10%-15%, whereas uncertainty of absorbed dose to distant organs is roughly 20%-25%. Conclusions: The results provided here facilitate retrospective dosimetry studies of Ra-226 using modern treatment planning systems, which may be used to improve knowledge on long term radiation effects. It is surely important for the epidemiologic studies to be aware of the estimated uncertainty provided here before extracting their conclusions.
  • Dasu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of variable RBE on proton fractionation
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - 0094-2405. ; 40:1, s. 011705-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To explore the impact of variable proton RBE on dose fractionation for clinically-relevant situations. A generic RBE=1.1 is generally used for isoeffect calculations, while experimental studies showed that proton RBE varies with tissue type, dose and LET.Material and methods: An analytical expression for the LET and α/β dependence of the LQ model has been used for proton simulations in parallel with the assumption of a generic RBE=1.1. Calculations have been performed for ranges of LET values and fractionation sensitivities to describe clinically-relevant cases, like the treatment of H&N and prostate tumors. Isoeffect calculations were compared with predictions from a generic RBE value and reported clinical results.Results: The generic RBE=1.1 appears to be a reasonable estimate for the proton RBE of rapidly growing tissues irradiated with low LET radiation. However, the use of a variable RBE predicts larger differences for tissues with low α/β (both tumor and normal) and at low doses per fraction. In some situations these differences may appear in contrast to the findings from photon studies highlighting the importance of accurate accounting for the radiobiological effectiveness of protons. Furthermore, the use of variable RBE leads to closer predictions to clinical results. Conclusions: The LET dependence of the RBE has a strong impact on the predicted effectiveness of fractionated proton radiotherapy. The magnitude of the effect is modulated by the fractionation sensitivity and the fractional dose indicating the need for accurate analyses both in the target and around it. Care should therefore be employed for changing clinical fractionation patterns or when analyzing results from clinical studies for this type of radiation.
  • Fan, Peng, et al. (författare)
  • Scatter and crosstalk corrections for (99m)Tc/(123)I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Medical Physics. - : American Association of Physicists in Medicine. - 0094-2405 .- 2473-4209. ; 42:12, s. 6895-6911
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for (99m)Tc/(123)I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c).
  • Ghazal, Mohammed, et al. (författare)
  • 6-MV small field output factors: intra-/intermachine comparison and implementation of TRS-483 using various detectors and several linear accelerators
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - : WILEY. - 0094-2405. ; 46:11, s. 5350-5359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To investigate the applicability of output correction factors reported in TRS-483 on 6-MV small-field detector-reading ratios using four solid-state detectors. Also, to investigate variations in 6-MV small-field output factors (OF) among nominally matched linear accelerators (linacs). Methods The TRS-483 Code of Practice (CoP) introduced and provided output correction factors to be applied to measured detector-reading ratios to obtain OFs for several small-field detectors. Detector readings for 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm to 8 cm x 8 cm fields were measured and normalized to that of 10 cm x 10 cm field giving the detector-reading ratios. Three silicon diodes, IBA PFD, IBA EFD (IBA, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), PTW T60017, and one microdiamond, PTW T60019 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany), were used. Output correction factors from the CoP were applied to measured detector-reading ratios. Measurements were performed on six Clinac and six TrueBeam linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA). An investigation of the relationship between the size of small fields and corresponding detector-reading ratio among the linacs was performed by measuring lateral dose profiles for 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm fields to determine the full width half maximum (FWHM). The relationship between the linacs focal spot size and the small-field detector-reading ratio was investigated by measuring 10 cm x 10 cm lateral dose profiles and determining the penumbra width reflecting the focal spot size. Measurement geometry was as follows: gantry angle = 0 degrees, collimator angle = 0 degrees, source-to surface distance (SSD) = 90 cm, and depth in water = 10 cm. Results For a given linac and 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm field, the deviations in detector-reading ratios among the detectors were 9%-15% for the Clinacs and 4%-5% for the TrueBeams. Use of output correction factors reduced these deviations to 6%-12% and 3%-4%, respectively. For field sizes equal to or larger than 0.8 cm x 0.8 cm, the deviations were corrected to 1% using output correction factors for both Clinacs and TrueBeams. For a given detector and 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm field, the deviations in detector-reading ratios among the linacs were 11%-17% for the Clinacs and 5-6% for the TrueBeams. For 1 cm x 1 cm the deviations were 1%-2% for Clinacs and 1% for TrueBeams. For field sizes larger than 1 cm x 1 cm the deviations were within 1% for both Clinacs and TrueBeams. No relationship between FWHMs and detector-reading ratios for 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm was observed. For Clinacs, larger 10 cm x 10 cm penumbra width yielded lower 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm detector-reading ratio indicating an effect of the focal spot size. For TrueBeams, the spread of penumbra widths was lower compared to Clinacs and no similar relationship was observed. Conclusions Output correction factors from the TRS-483 CoP are not sufficient for accurate determination of OF for 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm fields but are applicable for 0.8 cm x 0.8 cm to 8 cm x 8 cm fields. Nominally matched Clinacs and TrueBeams show large differences in detector-reading ratios for fields smaller than 1 cm x 1 cm.
  • Giantsoudi, D., et al. (författare)
  • A gEUD-based inverse planning technique for HDR prostate brachytherapy : Feasibility study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - 0094-2405. ; 40:4, s. 041704-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of a new inverse planning technique based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose for image-guided high dose rate (HDR) prostate cancer brachytherapy in comparison to conventional dose-volume based optimization. Methods: The quality of 12 clinical HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate utilizing HIPO (Hybrid Inverse Planning Optimization) is compared with alternative plans, which were produced through inverse planning using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). All the common dose-volume indices for the prostate and the organs at risk were considered together with radiobiological measures. The clinical effectiveness of the different dose distributions was investigated by comparing dose volume histogram and gEUD evaluators. Results: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of gEUD-based inverse planning in HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate. A statistically significant decrease in D-10 or/and final gEUD values for the organs at risk (urethra, bladder, and rectum) was found while improving dose homogeneity or dose conformity of the target volume. Conclusions: Following the promising results of gEUD-based optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment optimization, as reported in the literature, the implementation of a similar model in HDR brachytherapy treatment plan optimization is suggested by this study. The potential of improved sparing of organs at risk was shown for various gEUD-based optimization parameter protocols, which indicates the ability of this method to adapt to the user's preferences.
  • Kaveckyte, Vaiva, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of a synthetic diamond detector response in kilovoltage photon beams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster). - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0094-2405. ; 47:3, s. 1268-1279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose An important characteristic of radiation dosimetry detectors is their energy response which consists of absorbed-dose and intrinsic energy responses. The former can be characterized using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, whereas the latter (i.e., detector signal per absorbed dose to detector) is extracted from experimental data. Such a characterization is especially relevant when detectors are used in nonrelative measurements at a beam quality that differs from the calibration beam quality. Having in mind the possible application of synthetic diamond detectors (microDiamond PTW 60019, Freiburg, Germany) for nonrelative dosimetry of low-energy brachytherapy (BT) beams, we determined their intrinsic and absorbed-dose energy responses in 25-250 kV beams relative to a Co-60 beam, which is usually the reference beam quality for detector calibration in radiotherapy. Material and Methods Three microDiamond detectors and, for comparison, two silicon diodes (PTW 60017) were calibrated in terms of air-kerma free in air in six x-ray beam qualities (from 25 to 250 kV) and in terms of absorbed dose to water in a Co-60 beam at the national metrology laboratory in Sweden. The PENELOPE/penEasy MC radiation transport code was used to calculate the absorbed-dose energy response of the detectors (modeled based on blueprints) relative to air and water depending on calibration conditions. The MC results were used to extract the relative intrinsic energy response of the detectors from the overall energy response. Measurements using an independent setup with a single ophthalmic BEBIG I25.S16 I-125 BT seed (effective photon energy of 28 keV) were used as a qualitative check of the extracted intrinsic energy response correction factors. Additionally, the impact of the thickness of the active volume as well as the presence of extra-cameral components on the absorbed-dose energy response of a microDiamond detector was studied using MC simulations. Results The relative intrinsic energy response of the microDiamond detectors was higher by a factor of 2 in 25 and 50 kV beams compared to the Co-60 beam. The variation in the relative intrinsic energy response of silicon diodes was within 10% over the investigated photon energy range. The use of relative intrinsic energy response correction factors improved the agreement among the absorbed dose to water values determined using microDiamond detectors and silicon diodes, as well as with the TG-43 formalism-based calculations for the I-125 seed. MC study of microDiamond detector design features provided a possible explanation for inter-detector response variation at low-energy photon beams by differences in the effective thickness of the active volume. Conclusions MicroDiamond detectors had a non-negligible variation in the relative intrinsic energy response (factor of 2) which was comparable to that in the absorbed-dose energy response relative to water at low-energy photon beams. Silicon diodes, in contrast, had an absorbed-dose energy dependence on photon energy that varied by a factor of 6, whereas the intrinsic energy dependence on beam quality was within 10%. It is important to decouple these two responses for a full characterization of detector energy response especially when the user and reference beam qualities differ significantly, and MC alone is not enough.
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