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1.
  • Agapitov, Oleksiy, et al. (författare)
  • A statistical study of the propagation characteristics of whistler waves observed by Cluster
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 38, s. L20103-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • VLF waves play a crucial role in the dynamics of radiation belts, and are responsible for the loss and the acceleration of energetic electrons. Modeling wave-particle interactions requires the best possible knowledge for how wave energy and wave-normal directions are distributed in L-shells and for the magnetic latitudes of different magnetic activity conditions. In this work, we performed a statistical study for VLF emissions using a whistler frequency range for nine years (2001-2009) of Cluster measurements. We utilized data from the STAFF-SA experiment, which spans the frequency range from 8.8 Hz to 3.56 kHz. We show that the wave energy distribution has two maxima around L similar to 4.5 = 6 and L similar to 2, and that wave-normals are directed approximately along the magnetic field in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. The distribution changes with magnetic latitude, and so that at latitudes of similar to 30 degrees, wave-normals become nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observed angular distribution is significantly different from Gaussian and the width of the distribution increases with latitude. Since the resonance condition for wave-particle interactions depends on the wave normal orientation, our results indicate that, due to the observed change in the wave-normal direction with latitude, the most efficient particle diffusion due to wave-particle interaction should occur in a limited region surrounding the geomagnetic equator.
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2.
  • Aichner, Bernhard, et al. (författare)
  • Hydroclimate in the Pamirs Was Driven by Changes in Precipitation-Evaporation Seasonality Since the Last Glacial Period
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 46:23, s. 13972-13983
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Central Asian Pamir Mountains (Pamirs) are a high-altitude region sensitive to climatic change, with only few paleoclimatic records available. To examine the glacial-interglacial hydrological changes in the region, we analyzed the geochemical parameters of a 31-kyr record from Lake Karakul and performed a set of experiments with climate models to interpret the results. delta D values of terrestrial biomarkers showed insolation-driven trends reflecting major shifts of water vapor sources. For aquatic biomarkers, positive delta D shifts driven by changes in precipitation seasonality were observed at ca. 31-30, 28-26, and 17-14 kyr BP. Multiproxy paleoecological data and modelling results suggest that increased water availability, induced by decreased summer evaporation, triggered higher lake levels during those episodes, possibly synchronous to northern hemispheric rapid climate events. We conclude that seasonal changes in precipitation-evaporation balance significantly influenced the hydrological state of a large waterbody such as Lake Karakul, while annual precipitation amount and inflows remained fairly constant.
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3.
  • Akbari, H., et al. (författare)
  • In Situ Electron Density From Active Sounding : The Influence of the Spacecraft Wake
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - : AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 46:17-18, s. 10250-10256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results obtained in the Martian ionosphere by the Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission spacecraft are presented. The results include ionospheric electron densities determined from the frequency of Langmuir waves. Since the amplitude of thermal Langmuir waves is often below the instrument's detection level, Langmuir Probe and Waves excites these waves by injecting into the plasma a 3.3-V white noise signal. Electric field spectral measurements obtained shortly after the excitation show a resonance line at frequencies slightly below the local plasma frequency. The observed resonance line is interpreted to originate from plasma waves excited in the wake behind the spacecraft. These results reveal an important phenomenon in electron density estimation from stimulated Langmuir waves. The observed phenomenon, not previously reported by earlier missions, may be a common process in active sounding that can affect in situ electron density measurements.
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4.
  • Aldahan, Ala, et al. (författare)
  • Atmospheric impact on beryllium isotopes as solar activity proxy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 35:L21812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reconstructing solar activity variability beyond the time scale of actual measurements provides invaluable data for modeling of past and future climate change. The 10 Be isotope has been a primary proxy archive of past solar activity and cosmic ray intensity, particularly for the last millennium. There is, however, a lack of direct high-resolution atmospheric time series on 10 Be that enable estimating atmospheric modulation on the production signal. Here we report quasi-weekly data on 10 Be and 7 Be isotopes covering the periods 1983-2000 and 1975-2006 respectively, that show, for the first time, coherent variations reflecting both atmospheric and production effects. Our data indicate intrusion of stratosphere/upper troposphere air masses that can modulate the isotopes production signal, and may induce relative peaks in the natural 10 Be archives (i.e., ice and sediment). The atmospheric impact on the Be-isotopes can disturb the production signals and consequently the estimate of past solar activity magnitude. Citation: Aldahan, A., J. Hedfors, G. Possnert, A. Kulan, A.-M. Berggren, and C. Soderstrom (2008), Atmospheric impact on beryllium isotopes as solar activity proxy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21812, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035189.
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5.
  • Aldahan, Ala, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of I-127 and I-129 in preciptitation at high European latitudes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 36, s. L11805-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  We here present the most extensive data set on the distribution of   I-127 and I-129 in precipitation (rain and snow) covering the period   2000-2006 and European latitudes 55 degrees N-68 degrees N. Our results   indicate a wide variation in the concentrations and fluxes of the two   isotopes associated with generally higher values at near coastal sites   compared to the inland ones. Total wet-related annual deposition of   I-127 and I-129 on Sweden and Denmark is estimated at about 1.2 x 10(9)   g and 60 g respectively. The average annual I-129 wet deposition   accounts for <1% and <0.05% of the total annual gaseous and liquid,   respectively, discharges from the Sellafiled and La Hague Facilities.   The I-127 annual wet deposition represents < 1% of the estimated global   oceanic iodine flux. Air mass trajectories suggest that events of   enhanced I-129 in precipitation are closely related to southwesterly weather fronts from regions of elevated concentrations.
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6.
  • Aleinov, I, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling a Transient Secondary Paleolunar Atmosphere : 3-D Simulations and Analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - : AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 46:10, s. 5107-5116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The lunar history of water deposition, loss, and transport postaccretion has become an important consideration in relation to the possibility of a human outpost on the Moon. Very recent work has shown that a secondary primordial atmosphere of up to 10 mbar could have been emplaced similar to 3.5 x 10(9) years ago due to volcanic outgassing from the maria. Using a zero-dimensional chemistry model, we demonstrate the temperature dependence of the resulting major atmospheric components (CO or CO2). We use a three-dimensional general circulation model to test the viability of such an atmosphere and derive its climatological characteristics. Based on these results, we then conjecture on its capability to transport volatiles outgassed from the maria to the permanently shadowed regions at the poles. Our preliminary results demonstrate that atmospheres as low as 1 mbar are viable and that permanent cold trapping of volatiles is only possible at the poles.
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7.
  • Alfvén, Hannes (författare)
  • Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 10:6, s. 487-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the 1970's in situ measurements in the magnetospheres, including the solar wind region ("solar magnetosphere") drastically changed our understanding of the properties of cosmic plasmas. Further, we have learned how to generalize results from plasma investigations in one region to other regions. This means that laboratory investigations of plasmas of the size of, say, 10 cm can be used to achieve better understanding of cosmic plasmas of magnetospheric dimensions; say, 1010 cm. By another step of 109 we can transfer laboratory and magnetospheric results to galactic plasmas of, say, 1019 cm. A third jump of 109 brings us up to the Hubble distance 1028 cm and hence to cosmological problems (see Figure 1).
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8.
  • Alfvén, Hannes (författare)
  • Viking in the plasma universe
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 14:4, s. 475-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Realizing that the magnetosphere cannot be understood until the electric field is mapped, Viking has placed emphasis on electric field measurements. Because energy is transferred from the solar wind mainly through electric currents in the active plasma regions, Viking's orbit is selected so as to include as much of the active regions as possible. The real-time presentation of the results makes it possible to modify the observations as soon as interesting events are seen. As several of the project leaders have experience in plasma laboratory experiments, Viking can be characterized as a new type of space plasma experiment.Some of the results of the Viking mission are important as a basis for drawing the circuit of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere (Figure 1) and for understanding the general properties of collisionless plasmas in space (Table 1). They will constitute a platform for a systematic exploration of the plasma universe (Figure 2), which will have an impact on our views on cosmogony and cosmology.
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9.
  • Alm, L., et al. (författare)
  • Magnetotail Hall Physics in the Presence of Cold Ions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - : Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 45:20, s. 10,941-10,950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first in situ observation of cold ionospheric ions modifying the Hall physics of magnetotail reconnection. While in the tail lobe, Magnetospheric Multiscale mission observed cold (tens of eV) E × B drifting ions. As Magnetospheric Multiscale mission crossed the separatrix of a reconnection exhaust, both cold lobe ions and hot (keV) ions were observed. During the closest approach of the neutral sheet, the cold ions accounted for ∼30% of the total ion density. Approximately 65% of the initial cold ions remained cold enough to stay magnetized. The Hall electric field was mainly supported by the j × B term of the generalized Ohm's law, with significant contributions from the ∇·P e and v c ×B terms. The results show that cold ions can play an important role in modifying the Hall physics of magnetic reconnection even well inside the plasma sheet. This indicates that modeling magnetic reconnection may benefit from including multiscale Hall physics.
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10.
  • Alm, Love, et al. (författare)
  • MMS Observations of Multiscale Hall Physics in the Magnetotail
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - : AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) observations of Hall physics in the magnetotail, which compared to dayside Hall physics is a relatively unexplored topic. The plasma consists of electrons, moderately cold ions (T similar to 1.5 keV) and hot ions (T similar to 20 keV). MMS can differentiate between the cold ion demagnetization region and hot ion demagnetization regions, which suggests that MMS was observing multiscale Hall physics. The observed Hall electric field is compared with a generalized Ohm's law, accounting for multiple ion populations. The cold ion population, despite its relatively high initial temperature, has a significant impact on the Hall electric field. These results show that multiscale Hall physics is relevant over a much larger temperature range than previously observed and is relevant for the whole magnetosphere as well as for other astrophysical plasma.
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