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1.
  • Hemminki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular epidemiology of VHL gene mutations in renal cell carcinoma patients relation to dietary and other factors
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. - 0143-3334 (Print) 0143-3334 (Linking) ; 23:5, s. 809-815
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carcinogenic chemicals act through DNA damage and mitogenic effects. No established mechanism explains the cancer preventive effects, if any, of food items, such as vegetables and fruit. If such data were available, preferably on tumor-initiating genes, the evidence for the protective effects would become stronger. The von Hipple-Lindau (VHL) gene is the tumor suppressor gene predisposing to both sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and von Hippel-Lindau disease. We have earlier analyzed VHL mutations in RCCs from 102 Swedish patients identified in a case-control study and here examine associations between patient characteristics, including dietary habits and mutations, considering the type of mutation. The results are given as odds ratios (OR), separately for smokers and all patients. In univariate analysis, consumption of vegetables and citrus fruit decreased the frequency of VHL mutations among smokers and citrus fruit among all patients. In multivariate analysis of smokers' characteristics, welding fumes showed a risk of 5.63 for multiple VHL mutations. In smokers, citrus fruit decreased the OR of GC to AT mutations to 0.13 and that of multiple mutations to 0.17; vegetables decreased the OR for single mutations to 0.22. Among all subjects, welding fumes were a risk factor and citrus fruit a protective factor. Additionally, an intake of selenium protected against multiple mutations. The present results provide evidence that the intake of vegetables, selenium and particularly of citrus fruit protects the renal VHL gene from mutational insults that may be endogenous or common in a population. Even though most of the associations are biologically plausible, and vegetables and fruit were an a priori hypothesis, fortuitous results cannot be ruled out in this relatively small study.
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3.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 34:6, s. 1244-1250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested casecontrol study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI 1.031.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR 1.60, CI 1.162.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR 1.82, CI 1.272.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out.
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4.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer : the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334. ; 33:6, s. 1211-1218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adiponectin - an adipose-tissue-derived protein may provide a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite they were hypothesised to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW-adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW-adiponectin). In a prospective nested case-control study we investigated whether pre-diagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW-adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon, 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW-adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-0.95, P (trend)=0.03 for total adiponectin and 0.45, 95%CI=0.34-0.61, P (trend)<0.0001 for non-HMW-adiponectin]. HMW-adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR=0.91, 95%CI=0.68-1.22, P (trend)=0.55). Non-HMW-adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR=0.39, 95%CI=0.26-0.60, P (trend)<0.0001); whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR=0.81, 95%CI=0.60-1.09, P (trend)=0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW-adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW-adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
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5.
  • Alexandrie, A K, et al. (författare)
  • CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 21:4, s. 669-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Certain human biotransformation enzymes have been implicated in the formation and scavenging of the ultimate reactive metabolites, the diolepoxides, from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, performed on aluminum smelter workers, we have analyzed airborne PAH, the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine, and genotypes for biotransformation enzymes involved in PAH metabolism. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between external exposure and biomarkers of exposure and to investigate to what extent genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes can explain interindividual variation in urinary 1-OHP levels. DNA was prepared from blood samples from 98 potroom workers and 55 controls and altogether eight polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The 1-OHP excretion was found to correlate significantly (P </= 0.005) to the exposure. The interindividual difference in excretion of 1-OHP was vast (>100-fold) and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the variables that could determine differences in excretion. The variation could, to some degree, be explained by differences in exposure to airborne particulate-associated PAHs, the use of personal respiratory protection devices, smoking habits and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes. The part of the variance that could be explained by differences in biotransformation genotypes seemed to be of the same order of magnitude as the variance explained by differences in exposure. In the control group as well as in the occupationally exposed group, the highest 1-OHP levels were observed in individuals carrying the CYP1A1 Ile/Val genotype who were also of the GSTM1 null genotype. The results show that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that it may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs.
6.
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer-related proteins in serum are altered in workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons : : a cross-sectional study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 40:6, s. 771-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of cancer and is common, particularly for workers in occupations such as chimney sweeping. In exposed workers, screening of early cancer-related markers provides important information to identify individuals at risk. Here, we aimed to elucidate the associations between PAH exposure and serum levels of cancer-related proteins in 118 chimney sweeps and 126 occupationally unexposed controls, all non-smoking males from Sweden. Monoydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, phenanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene were measured in urine using LC/MS/MS and 90 cancer-related proteins were measured in serum using a Proximity Extension Assay. Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, BMI, and false discovery rate (FDR) identified 17 serum proteins that were differentially expressed (16 upregulated and 1 downregulated) in chimney sweeps compared with controls (FDR<0.05). Concentrations of the peptidase kallikrein 13 (KLK13) showed significant positive associations with urinary concentrations of the PAH metabolites 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (B, 95%CI: 0.042, 0.008-0.076) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]anthracene (B, 95%CI: 0.068, 0.002-0.134). Moreover, dose-response relationships were observed between KLK13 and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (trend test P=0.027) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]anthracene (P=0.035). Pathway and gene ontology analyses showed that cell movement, cell adhesion, and cell migration were the predominant molecular functions associated with the top differentially expressed proteins. In conclusion, we found a number of putative cancer-related proteins differentially expressed in workers exposed to PAH. This warrants effective measure to reduce PAH exposure among workers as well as further investigation to confirm these findings.
7.
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 39:7, s. 869-878
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers (73.3%), but not chimney sweeps (76.6%) had lower methylation of F2RL3 cg03636183 than controls (76.7%). Linear regression analyses showed that chimney sweeps had lower AHRR cg05575921 methylation (B=-2.04; P<0.057, adjusted for smoking and age) and lower average AHRR methylation (B=-2.05; P<0.035), and non-smoking chimney sweeps had lower average F2RL3 methylation (B=-0.81; P<0.042, adjusted for age) compared with controls. These cancer-related markers were not associated with urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites. In conclusion, although we found no associations with PAH metabolites in urine (short-term exposure), our results suggest dose-response relationship between PAH exposure and DNA hypomethylation of lung cancer-related loci. These findings indicate that further protective measures should be taken to reduce PAH exposure.
8.
  • Ali, Imran, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and prostate cancer population-based prospective cohort and experimental studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 37:12, s. 1144-1151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent environmental pollutants and are undesirable components of our daily food. PCBs are classified as human carcinogens, but the evidence for prostate cancer is limited and available data are inconsistent. We explored the link between non-dioxin-like PCB and grade of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort as well as in cell experiments. A population-based cohort of 32496 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed prospectively through 1998-2011, to assess the association between validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and incidence of prostate cancer by grade (2789 cases, whereof 1276 low grade, 756 intermediate grade, 450 high grade) and prostate cancer mortality (357 fatal cases). In addition, we investigated a non-dioxin-like PCB153-induced cell invasion and related markers in normal prostate stem cells (WPE-stem) and in three different prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145 and 22RV1) at exposure levels relevant to humans. After multivariable-adjustment, dietary PCB exposure was positively associated with high-grade prostate cancer, relative risk (RR) 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.76] and with fatal prostate cancer, RR 1.43 (95% CI: 1.05-1.95), comparing the highest tertile with the lowest. We observed no association with low or intermediate grade of prostate cancer. Cell invasion and related markers, including MMP9, MMP2, Slug and Snail, were significantly increased in human prostate cancer cells as well as in prostate stem cells after exposure to PCB153. Our findings both from the observational and experimental studies suggest a role of non-dioxin-like PCB153 in the development of high-grade and fatal prostate cancer.
9.
  • Augustsson, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of the human exposure to heterocyclic amines
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334. ; 18:10, s. 1931-1935
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterocyclic amines are possible human carcinogens and fried meat is an important source of exposure in the Western diet, To study the effect of heterocyclic amines in humans, accurate assessment of individual food consumption is essential, Parameters influencing the intake include the amount and type of meat ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking method, cooking temperature and the duration of cooking, The aim of the present study was to develop a practical method for assessing individual intakes of specific heterocyclic amines in a large sample of people, This has been done by combining information on food consumption and laboratory findings of heterocyclic amines in food products, Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including photos of fried meat and, in all, 22 dishes were cooked and chemically analyzed. The method was employed in an elderly population in Stockholm to estimate the daily mean intake of the five heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), The total daily intake ranged from none to 1816 ng, with a mean intake of 160 ng, which is well below estimates reported previously, Highest amounts ingested were of PhIP (mean 72, range 0-865 ng/day) and MeIQx (mean 72, range 0-1388 ng/day), followed by DiMeIQx (mean 16, range 0-171 ng/day), while MeIQ and IQ were ingested only in very small amounts (mean &lt;1 ng/day).
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10.
  • Aydoğdu, Eylem, et al. (författare)
  • MicroRNA-regulated gene networks during mammary cell differentiation are associated with breast cancer.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334. ; 33:8, s. 1502-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in stem cell biology, differentiation and oncogenesis and are of high interest as potential breast cancer therapeutics. However, their expression and function during normal mammary differentiation and in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. In order to identify which miRNAs are involved in mammary differentiation, we thoroughly investigated miRNA expression during functional differentiation of undifferentiated, stem cell-like, murine mammary cells using two different large-scale approaches followed by qPCR. Significant changes in expression of 21 miRNAs were observed in repeated rounds of mammary cell differentiation. The majority, including the miR-200 family and known tumor suppressor miRNAs, was upregulated during differentiation. Only four miRNAs, including oncomiR miR-17, were downregulated. Pathway analysis indicated complex interactions between regulated miRNA clusters and major pathways involved in differentiation, proliferation and stem cell maintenance. Comparisons with human breast cancer tumors showed the gene profile from the undifferentiated, stem-like stage clustered with that of poor-prognosis breast cancer. A common nominator in these groups was the E2F pathway, which was overrepresented among genes targeted by the differentiation-induced miRNAs. A subset of miRNAs could further discriminate between human non-cancer and breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200a/miR-200b, miR-146b and miR-148a were specifically downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. We show that miR-200a/miR-200b can inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-characteristic morphological changes in undifferentiated, non-tumorigenic mammary cells. Our studies propose EphA2 as a novel and important target gene for miR-200a. In conclusion, we present evidentiary data on how miRNAs are involved in mammary cell differentiation and indicate their related roles in breast cancer.
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