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1.
  • Achtert, Peggy, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopic growth of tropospheric particle number size distributions over the North China Plain
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 114, s. D00G07
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric submicrometer particle size distributions (diameter D-p ranging from 22 to 900 nm) was studied at a rural/suburban site in the North China Plain within the framework of the international Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) research project. The goal was to characterize the regional aerosol in the polluted northeastern plain in China. Size descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGFs) were determined as a function of relative humidity (RH) by relating the particle number size distribution at a dry condition ( 100 nm), the DHGF are substantially higher than in the Aitken particle mode (D-p < 100 nm) as a result of different chemical composition. The size-dependent behavior of the DHGF highlights the relevance of particulate sulfate production over the North China Plain, accomplished by secondary formation from the gas phase and, potentially, liquid phase processes in convective clouds. Furthermore, all results concerning the DHGF show a significant dependency on meteorological air masses. The hygroscopic growth of accumulation mode particles correlates significantly with the PM1-mass fraction of sulfate ions determined by chemical analysis. Finally, this investigation provides a parameterization of the hygroscopic growth of 250-nm particles, which might be useful when predicting visibility and radiative forcing and performing atmospheric aerosol model validations.
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2.
  • Achtert, Peggy, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of polar stratospheric clouds in January 2008 by means of ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements and microphysical box model simulations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 116, s. D07201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in heterogeneous chemistry and ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere. The type of PSC as well as their temporal and spatial extent are important for the occurrence of heterogeneous reactions and, thus, ozone depletion. In this study a combination of ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements were used together with microphysical box model simulations along back trajectories to investigate the formation and alteration of Arctic PSCs. The measurements were made by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar system at Esrange and by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. Between 20 and 23 January 2008 PSCs composed of liquid particles were observed by CALIPSO between Greenland and the western side of the Scandinavian Mountains. Between 21 and 23 January 2008 the Esrange lidar observed a PSC composed of distinct layers of liquid and solid particles on the eastern side of the mountain range. Microphysical box model simulations along air parcel back trajectories indicate that liquid particles had formed at least 40 h before the observation at Esrange. Furthermore, the model indicates a high HNO(3) uptake into the liquid layer between 10 and 20 h before the observation. The PSC was formed when the air mass was over Greenland. On two occasions during these 20 h, CALIPSO observed PSCs when its measurement tracks crossed the air parcel back trajectory ending at the location of the Esrange lidar. Backscatter ratios calculated from the output of the box model simulation indicate good agreement with the values observed with the Esrange lidar and by CALIPSO. The box model simulations along the back trajectories from Esrange to the CALIPSO ground track and beyond provide us with the unique opportunity to relate ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements that were not performed at the same spatial location and time. Furthermore, possible differences in the observations from ground and space can be traced to temporal and/or geographically induced changes in particle microphysics within the measured PSCs.
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3.
  • Adriani, O., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of quasi-trapped electron and positron fluxes with PAMELA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 114, s. A12218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents precise measurements of the differential energy spectra of quasi-trapped secondary electrons and positrons and their ratio between 80 MeV and 10 GeV in the near-equatorial region (altitudes between 350 km and 600 km). Latitudinal dependences of the spectra are analyzed in detail. The results were obtained from July until November 2006 onboard the Resurs-DK satellite by the PAMELA spectrometer, a general purpose cosmic ray detector system built around a permanent magnet spectrometer and a silicon-tungsten calorimeter.
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4.
  • Agapitov, Oleksiy, et al. (författare)
  • Multispacecraft observations of chorus emissions as a tool for the plasma density fluctuations' remote sensing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 116, s. A09222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions are the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves that are observed in the radiation belts and in the outer magnetosphere of the Earth. They are assumed to propagate approximately along the magnetic field lines and are generated in source regions in the vicinity of the magnetic equator and in minimum B pockets in the dayside outer zone of the magnetosphere. The presence of plasma density irregularities along the raypath causes a loss of phase coherence of the chorus wave packets. These irregularities are often present around the plasmapause and in the radiation belts; they occur at scales ranging from a few meters up to several hundred kilometers and can be highly anisotropic. Such irregularities result in fluctuations of the dielectric permittivity, whose statistical properties can be studied making use of intersatellite correlations of whistler waves' phases and amplitudes. We demonstrate how the whistler-mode wave properties can be used to infer statistical characteristics of the density fluctuations. The analogy between weakly coupled oscillators under the action of uncorrelated random forces and wave propagation in a randomly fluctuating medium is used to determine the wave phase dependence on the duration of signal recording time. We study chorus whistler-mode waves observed by the Cluster WBD instrument and apply intersatellite correlation analysis to determine the statistical characteristics of the waveform phases and amplitudes. We then infer the statistical characteristics of the plasma density fluctuations and evaluate the spatial distribution of the irregularities using the same chorus events observed by the four Cluster spacecraft.
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5.
  • Agren, Anneli, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations during spring flood in the boreal forest : A simple empirical approach for regional predictions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 115, s. G01012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration are clearly seen for streams in which chemistry is measured on a high-frequency/episode basis, but these high-frequency data are not available in long-term monitoring programs. Here we develop statistical models to predict DOC concentrations during spring flood from easily available geographic information system data and base flow chemistry. Two response variables were studied, the extreme DOC concentration and the concentration during peak flood. Ninety-seven streams in boreal Scandinavia in two different ecoregions with substantially different mean water chemistry and landscape characteristics (covering a large climatic gradient) were used to construct models where 56% of the extreme DOC concentration and 63% of the concentration during peak flood were explained by altitude. This highlights important regional drivers (gradients in altitude, runoff, precipitation, temperature) of material flux. Spring flood extreme DOC concentration could be predicted from only base flow chemistry (r(2) = 0.71) or from landscape data (r(2) = 0 .74) but combining them increased the proportion of explained variance to 87%. The "best" model included base flow DOC (positive), mean annual runoff (negative), and wetland coverage (positive). The root mean square error was 1.18 mg L-1 for both response variables. The different ecoregions were successfully combined into the same regression models, yielding a single approach that works across much of boreal Scandinavia.
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6.
  • Aikio, A T, et al. (författare)
  • On the origin of the high-altitude electric field fluctuations in the auroral zone
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 101:A12, s. 27157-27170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intense fluctuations in the electric field at high altitudes in the auroral zone are frequently measured by the Viking satellite. We have made an analysis of the origin of electric and magnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 Hz by assuming four different sources for the signals: (I) spatial structures, (2) spatial structures with a parallel potential drop below the satellite, (3) traveling; shear Alfven waves, and (4) interfering shear Alfven waves. We will shaw that these different sources of the signals may produce similar amplitude ratios and phase differences between the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. Since the different sources have different frequency dependencies, this can be used as an additional test if the signals are broadband. In other cases, additional information is needed, for example, satellite particle measurements or ground; magnetic measurements. The ideas presented in the theory were tested for one Viking eveningside pass over Scandinavia, where ground-based magnetometer and EISCAT radar measurements were available. The magnetic conditions were active during this pass and several interfering shear Alfven waves were found. Also, a spatial structure with a parallel potential drop below the satellite was identified. The magnitude of the 10-km-wide potential drop was at least 2 kV and the upward field-aligned current 26 mu A m(-2) (value mapped to the ionospheric level). The held-aligned conductance was estimated as 1.3 - 2.2x10(-8) S m(-2).
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7.
  • Akkermans, T., et al. (författare)
  • Validation and comparison of two soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models for tropical Africa
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. - American Geophysical Union. - 0148-0227. ; 117, s. G02013
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aims to compare and validate two soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) schemes: TERRA-ML and the Community Land Model (CLM). Both SVAT schemes are run in standalone mode (decoupled from an atmospheric model) and forced with meteorological in-situ measurements obtained at several tropical African sites. Model performance is quantified by comparing simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes with eddy-covariance measurements. Our analysis indicates that the Community Land Model corresponds more closely to the micrometeorological observations, reflecting the advantages of the higher model complexity and physical realism. Deficiencies in TERRA-ML are addressed and its performance is improved: (1) adjusting input data (root depth) to region-specific values (tropical evergreen forest) resolves dry-season underestimation of evapotranspiration; (2) adjusting the leaf area index and albedo (depending on hard-coded model constants) resolves overestimations of both latent and sensible heat fluxes; and (3) an unrealistic flux partitioning caused by overestimated superficial water contents is reduced by adjusting the hydraulic conductivity parameterization. CLM is by default more versatile in its global application on different vegetation types and climates. On the other hand, with its lower degree of complexity, TERRA-ML is much less computationally demanding, which leads to faster calculation times in a coupled climate simulation.
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8.
  • Al-Wardy, W, et al. (författare)
  • Effective stress law for the permeability of clay-rich sandstones
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 109:4, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two models of clay-rich sandstones are analyzed to explain the relative sensitivity ofpermeability to pore pressure and confining pressure. In one model the clay lines the entire pore wall in a layer of uniform thickness, and in the second model the clay is distributed in the form of particles that are only weakly coupled to the pore walls. Equations of elasticity and fluid flow are solved for both models, giving expressions for theeffective stress coefficients in terms of clay content and the elastic moduli of the rock andclay. Both models predict that the permeability will be much more sensitive to changes in pore pressure than to changes in confining pressure. The clay particle model gives somewhat better agreement with data from the literature and with new data on a Staintonsandstone having a solid volume fraction of 8% clay. 
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9.
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10.
  • Anderson, Leif G, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Source and formation of the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans. - 0148-0227. ; 118:1, s. 410-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean has a distinct chemical signature with high nutrient concentrations as well as low oxygen and pH values. This signature is formed in the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, by a combination of mineralization of organic matter and release of decay products to the sea ice brine enriched bottom water. Salinity and total alkalinity data show that the fraction of sea ice brine in the nutrient enriched upper halocline water in the central Arctic Ocean is up to 4%. In the East Siberian Sea the bottom waters with exceptional high nutrient concentration and low pH have typically between 5 and 10% of sea ice brine as computed from salinity and oxygen-18 values. On the continental slope, over bottom depths of 15-200 m, the brine contribution was 6% at the nutrient maximum depth (50-100 m). At the same location as well as over the deeper basin the silicate maximum was found over a wider salinity range than traditionally found in the Canada Basin, in agreement with earlier observations east of the Chukchi Plateau. A detailed evaluation of the chemical and the temperature-salinity properties suggests at least two different areas for the formation of the nutrient rich halocline within the East Siberian Sea. This has not been observed before 2004 and it could be a sign of a changing marine climate in the East Siberian Sea, caused by more open water in the summer season followed by more sea ice formation and brine production in the fall/winter.
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