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  • Madler, C. F., et al. (författare)
  • Non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease by quantitative stress echocardiography : Optimal diagnostic models using off-line tissue Doppler in the MYDISE study
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X. ; 24:17, s. 1584-1594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To develop optimal methods for the objective non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease, using myocardial Doppler velocities during dobutamine stress echocardiography. Methods and results: We acquired tissue Doppler digital data during dobutamine stress in 289 subjects, and measured myocardial responses by off-line analysis of 11 left ventricular segments. Diagnostic criteria developed by comparing 92 normal subjects with 48 patients with coronary disease were refined in a prospective series of 149 patients referred with chest pain. Optimal diagnostic accuracy was achieved by logistic regression models, using systolic velocities at maximal stress in 7 myocardial segments, adjusting for independent correlations directly with heart rate and inversely with age and female gender (all p<0.001). Best cut-points from receiveroperator curves diagnosed left anterior descending, circumflex and right coronary disease with sensitivities and specificities of 80% and 80%, 91% and 80%, and 93% and 82%, respectively. All models performed better than velocity cut-offs alone (p<0.001). Conclusion: Non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease by quantitative stress echocardiography is best performed using diagnostic models based on segmental velocities at peak stress and adjusting for heart rate, and gender or age. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The European Society of Cardiology.
  • Oldgren, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Myocardial Damage, Inflammation and Thrombin Inhibition in Unstable Coronary Artery Disease
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 24:1, s. 86-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM:Unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease involving both thrombotic and inflammatory processes. We have assessed the time-course and the influence of thrombin inhibitors on changes in fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels, and their relation to myocardial ischaemia in unstable CAD.METHODS AND RESULTS:Three hundred and twenty patients were randomized to 72 h infusion with three different doses of inogatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, or unfractionated heparin. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups in fibrinogen or C-reactive protein levels. Overall, the fibrinogen levels were significantly increased in the first 24-96 h and still elevated at 30 days. The C-reactive protein levels showed a more pronounced increase during the first 24-96 h, but then markedly decreased over 30 days. Troponin-positive compared to troponin-negative patients had higher fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels up to 96 h, although there was an increase compared to pre-treatment levels in both groups. A high fibrinogen level (pre-treatment top tertile) was associated with an increased rate of death or myocardial (re-)infarction at 30 days, 13% vs 5.6%, P=0.03, and increased long-term mortality. A high C-reactive protein level was related to increased 30-day mortality, 4% vs 0%, P=0.01.CONCLUSION:Myocardial cell injury was related to a high degree of inflammation, only some of which is an acutephase response due to tissue damage. The rise in fibrinogen was sustained, which might reflect low grade inflammation with long-term risk of thrombosis. The transient elevation of C-reactive protein levels might indicate a propensity to a pronounced inflammatory response and is associated with increased mortality.
  • Wallentin, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) compared to unfractionated heparin as an adjunct to rt-PA (alteplase) for improvement of coronary artery patency in acute myocardial infarction-the ASSENT Plus study.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Eur Heart J. - 0195-668X. ; 24:10, s. 897-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Current thrombolytic-antithrombotic regimens in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are limited by incomplete early coronary reperfusion and by reocclusion and reinfarction. We compared the effects of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) as an adjunct to recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (alteplase) on coronary artery patency and clinical outcomes in AMI. Methods: Patients with AMI treated with alteplase (n = 439) were randomised to either subcutaneous dalteparin (120 IU/kg every 12 h) for 4-7 days or intravenous infusion of UFH for 48 h. Coronary angiography was performed between day 4 and hospital discharge. Clinical events and safety were evaluated until day 30. Results: Overall there were higher thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flows in the infarct related coronary artery in the dalteparin group (p = 0.01 6). The predefined primary end-point, TIMI grade 3 flow, did not reach statistical significance (dalteparin 69.3% versus heparin 62.5%, p = 0.163). However, TIMI 0-1 flow (13.4 versus 24.4%, p = 0.006) and its combination with intraluminal thrombus (27.9 versus 42.0%, p = 0.003) were less common in the dalteparin group. During the period of randomised treatment there were less myocardial reinfarctions in the dalteparin group (p = 0.010) but after cessation of dalteparin there were more reinfarctions resulting in no difference in death or MI at 30 days. There were no significant differences in major bleeding or stroke after 30 days. Conclusions: In alteplase treated AMI adjunctive dalteparin for 4-7 days seems to reduce the risk of early coronary artery occlusion and reinfarction. However, early after cessation of treatment there is a raised risk of events, which might eliminate any long-term gains. ⌐ 2003 The European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Cowie, MR, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical applications of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) testing
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X. ; 24:19, s. 1710-1718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many claims have been made in recent years regarding the utility of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration measurements in the diagnosis, risk stratification and monitoring of patients with heart failure. This paper summarizes the current evidence and provides guidance for practising clinicians. Overall, plasma BNP testing appears to be of most value in the diagnostic arena, where it is likely to improve the performance of non-specialist physicians in diagnosing heart failure. In clinical practice, BNP testing is best used as a 'rule out' test for suspected cases of new heart failure in breathless patients presenting to either the outpatient or emergency care settings, it is not a replacement for echocardiography and full cardiological assessment, which will be required for patients with an elevated BNP concentration. Although work is ongoing in establishing the 'normal' values of BNP, heart failure appears to be highly unlikely below a plasma concentration of 100 pg/ml. However, as BNP levels rise with age and are affected by gender, comorbidity and drug therapy, the plasma BNP measurement should not be used in isolation from the clinical context.
  • Norhammar, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Under utilisation of evidence-based treatment partially explains for the unfavourable prognosis in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Eur Heart J. - 0195-668X. ; 24:9, s. 838-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The prognosis after an acute myocardial infarction is worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without. We investigated whether differences in the use of evidence-based treatment may contribute to the differences in 1-year survival in a large cohort of consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Methods: We included patients below the age of 80 years from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), which included all patients admitted to coronary care units at 58 hospitals during 1995-1998. In all 5193 patients had the combination of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus while 20 440 had myocardial infarction but no diabetes diagnosed. Multivariate logistical regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of diabetes mellitus on the use of evidence-based treatment and its association with survival during the first year after the index hospitalisation. Results: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 20.3% (males 18.5%, females 24.4%). The 1-year mortality was substantially higher among diabetic patients compared with those without diabetes mellitus (13.0 vs. 22.3% for males and 14.4 vs. 26.1% for female patients, respectively) with an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) in three different age groups: <65 years 2.65 (2.23-3.16), 65-74 years 1.81 (1.61-2.04) and >75 years 1.71 (1.50-1.93). During hospital stay patients with diabetes mellitus received significantly less treatment with heparins (37 vs. 43%, p<0.001), intravenous beta blockade (29 vs. 33%, p<0.001), thrombolysis (31 vs. 41%, p<0.001) and acute revascularisation (4 vs. 5%, p<0.003). A similar pattern was apparent at hospital discharge. After multiple adjustments for dissimilarities in baseline characteristics between the two groups, patients with diabetes were significantly less likely to be treated with reperfusion therapy (OR 0.83), heparins (OR 0.88), statins (OR 0.88) or to be revascularised within 14 days from hospital discharge procedures (OR 0.86) while the use of ACE-inhibitors was more prevalent among diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients (OR 1.45). The mortality reducing effects of evidence-based treatment like reperfusion, heparins, aspirin, beta-blockers, lipid-lowering treatment and revascularisation were, in multivariate analyses, of equal benefit in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Interpretation: Diabetes mellitus continues to be a major independent predictor of 1-year mortality following an acute myocardial infarction, especially in younger age groups. This may partly be explained by less use of evidence-based treatment although treatment benefits are similar in both patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Thus a more extensive use of established treatment has a potential to improve the poor prognosis among patients with acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus.
  • Strömberg, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Nurse-led heart failure clinics improve survival and self-care behaviour in patients with heart failure : Results from a prospective, randomised trial
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X. ; 24:11, s. 1014-1023
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim The aim of this trial was to prospectively evaluate the effect of follow-up at a nurse-led heart failure clinic on mortality, morbidity and self-care behaviour for patients hospitalised due to heart failure for 12 months after discharge.Methods A total of 106 patients were randomly assigned to either follow-up at a nurse-led heart failure clinic or to usual care. The nurse-led heart failure clinic was staffed by specially educated and experienced cardiac nurses, delegated the responsibility for making protocol-led changes in medications. The first follow-up visit was 2–3 weeks after discharge. During the visit the nurse evaluated the heart failure status and the treatment, gave education about heart failure and social support to the patient and his family.Results There were fewer patients with events (death or admission) after 12 months in the intervention group compared to the control group (29 vs 40, p=0.03) and fewer deaths after 12 months (7 vs 20, p=0.005). The intervention group had fewer admissions (33 vs 56, p=0.047) and days in hospital (350 vs 592, p=0.045) during the first 3 months. After 12 months the intervention was associated with a 55% decrease in admissions/patient/month (0.18 vs 0.40, p=0.06) and fewer days in hospital/patient/month (1.4 vs 3.9, p=0.02). The intervention group had significantly higher self-care scores at 3 and 12 months compared to the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01).Conclusions Follow up after hospitalisation at a nurse-led heart failure clinic can improve survival and self-care behaviour in patients with heart failure as well as reduce the number of events, readmissions and days in hospital.
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