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1.
  • Abrahamsson, Per-Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the human prostate gland
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0270-4137. ; 44:3, s. 181-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Calcitonin-related peptides have been found in the human prostate, and calcitonin (CT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been demonstrated in subpopulations of neuroendocrine (NE) cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of CT and CGRP as well as the densities of NE cells in normal prostates, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and carcinoma of the prostate (CAP). METHODS: In 42 specimens of radical prostatectomy, the number of CT- and CGRP-immunoreactive NE cells in areas of normal and BPH tissue was determined, and compared with CAP tissue using immunocytochemistry. In addition, by radioimmunoassay (RIA), tissue levels of CT and CGRP were analyzed in extracts from areas of normal, BPH, and CAP tissue, as verified by adjacent histologic sections. RESULTS: A significant decrease in CT-immunoreactive NE cells was observed in hyperplastic nodules of BPH in comparison to normal tissue. These findings were in parallel with a significant reduction in tissue CT level in BPH compared to normal tissue. There was also a marked, but statistically nonsignificant, reduction in CT levels in CAP tissue. In contrast, levels of CGRP in BPH and CAP tissue did not show any significant differences compared to normal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: CT and CGRP are present in NE cells of the human prostate. Calcitonin levels are significantly reduced in BPH, in parallel with a decreased number of CT-immunoreactive NE cells, whereas no significant changes in tissue levels of CGRP were observed. The functional significance of these findings is discussed.
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2.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroendocrine cells and nerves in the prostate of the guinea pig: effects of peripheral denervation and castration
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0270-4137. ; 46:3, s. 191-199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells and nerves in the prostate gland are thought to play a central role in the regulation of growth, cellular differentiation and homeostasis of secretory activity. The objective of this experimental study was to describe the effects of peripheral denervation and castration on NE cells and nerves in the guinea pig prostate. METHODS: Guinea pigs underwent sham-operation, unilateral and bilateral hypogastric nerve resection, extirpation of the right anterior major pelvic ganglion (AMPG), autotransplantation of prostatic tissue and castration. Cryostat sections of prostatic tissue were examined with immunohistochemistry by using serotonin (5-HT) and chromogranin A (CgA) and various neuropeptides. RESULTS: The number of 5-HT-IR NE cells was four-fold higher than CgA-IR NE cells. The innervation pattern was uniform throughout the gland with subepithelial nerves in close proximity to NE cells. Autotransplants of prostatic tissue showed total loss of nerves, but the number and morphology of 5-HT-IR NE cells were unaltered. Extirpation of the right AMPG showed significant reduction in prostate weight, decreased density of nerve terminals in the superior part of the ipsilateral prostate, whereas the number and morphological feature of 5-HT-IR NE cells remained unaffected in the entire prostate. Castration induced atrophy of the gland with a significant reduction in weight (unpaired t-test, P < 0.001), but without effect upon 5-HT-IR NE cells. CONCLUSIONS: The guinea pig seems to be a useful animal model for studies on the role of the NE cells in the prostate. NE cells seem to be independent of innervation and androgens. It seems that other factors influence the NE cell population to a greater extent.
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3.
  • Adamo, Hanibal Hani, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate cancer induces C/EBP expression in surrounding epithelial cells which relates to tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 79:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Implantation of rat prostate cancer cells into the normal rat prostate results in tumor-stimulating adaptations in the tumor-bearing organ. Similar changes are seen in prostate cancer patients and they are related to outcome. One gene previously found to be upregulated in the non-malignant part of tumor-bearing prostate lobe in rats was the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein- (C/EBP).Methods: To explore this further, we examined C/EBP expression by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot in normal rat prostate tissue surrounding slow-growing non-metastatic Dunning G, rapidly growing poorly metastatic (AT-1), and rapidly growing highly metastatic (MatLyLu) rat prostate tumors?and also by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) from prostate cancer patients managed by watchful waiting.Results: In rats, C/EBP mRNA expression was upregulated in the surrounding tumor-bearing prostate lobe. In tumors and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue, C/EBP was detected by immunohistochemistry in some epithelial cells and in infiltrating macrophages. The magnitude of glandular epithelial C/EBP expression in the tumor-bearing prostates was associated with tumor size, distance to the tumor, and metastatic capacity. In prostate cancer patients, high expression of C/EBP in glandular epithelial cells in the surrounding tumor-bearing tissue was associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages (iNOS+) and favorable outcome. High expression of C/EBP in tumor epithelial cells was associated with high Gleason score, high tumor cell proliferation, metastases, and poor outcome.Conclusions: This study suggest that the expression of C/EBP-beta, a transcription factor mediating multiple biological effects, is differentially expressed both in the benign parts of the tumor-bearing prostate and in prostate tumors, and that alterations in this may be related to patient outcome.
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5.
  • Adolfsson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates proliferation of cultured smooth muscle cells from human BPH tissue : Sildenafil and papaverin generate inhibition
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 51:1, s. 50-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The endogenous substance lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been found to generate proliferation of cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC). Therefore, the effect of LPA on human benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) could be of interest.Methods The proliferative effect of LPA on cultured human prostatic SMC from specimens obtained at trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) because of BPH, was analyzed by [3H]-thymidine and [35S]-methionine incorporation. In addition, LPA stimulated BPH SMC were treated with papaverin, forskolin, sildenafil or zaprinast, well known to increase the intracellular level of cAMP or cGMP.Results LPA produced a dose-dependent increase in BPH SMC, both regarding DNA- and protein-synthesis with EC50 values of 3 and 10 μM, respectively. Furthermore, both papaverin, a general phosphodiesterase inhibitor regarding cAMP hydrolyzes, and forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase stimulating agent, inhibited the LPA-stimulated DNA replication in a dose dependent manner with IC50  = 2.5, and 0.35 μM, respectively. cGMP increasing agents, such as the NO-donors SIN-1 and SNAP, produced a weak anti-proliferative response. However, both phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors sildenafil (Viagra®) and zaprinast efficiently blocked DNA replication. In addition, when the protein synthesis was examined, we found that the LPA response was significantly inhibited by forskolin and papaverin.Conclusions The major conclusion of this investigation is that the endogenous serum component LPA, is able to promote human BPH SMC growth. In addition, our study indicates that cyclic nucleotides can inhibit this effect. Future clinical studies will be needed to determine if different specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors per se or in combination could represent a new therapeutic possibility for the treatment of BPH.
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6.
  • Alva, Ajjai, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Correlates of Benefit From Radium-223 Therapy in Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer
  • Ingår i: Prostate. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0270-4137. ; 77:5, s. 479-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We sought to identify potential clinical variables associated with outcomes after radium-223 therapy in routine practice. METHODS: Consecutive non-trial mCRPC patients who received ≥1 dose of radium dichloride-223 at four academic and one community urology-specific cancer centers from May 2013 to June 2014 were retrospectively identified. Association of baseline and on-therapy clinical variables with number of radium doses received and clinical outcomes including overall survival were analyzed using chi-square statistics, cox proportional hazards, and Kaplan–Meier methods. Bone Scan Index (BSI) was derived from available bone scans using EXINI software. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-five patients were included. Radium-223 was administered for six cycles in 74 patients (51%). One-year survival in this heavily pre-treated population was 64% (95%CI: 54–73%). In univariate and multivariate analysis, survival was highly associated with receiving all six doses of Radium-223. Receipt of six doses was associated with ECOG PS of 0–1, lower baseline PSA & pain level, no prior abiraterone/enzalutamide, <5 BSI value, and normal alkaline phosphatase. In patients who reported baseline pain (n = 72), pain declined in 51% after one dose and increased in 7%. PSA declined ≥50% in 16% (18/110). Alkaline phosphatase declined ≥25% in 48% (33/69) and ≥50% in 16/69 patients. BSI declined in 17 (68%) of the 25 patients who had bone scan available at treatment follow-up. Grade ≥3 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 4% (n = 114), 4% (n = 125), and 5% (n = 123), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients earlier in their disease course with <5 BSI, low pain score, and good ECOG performance status are optimal candidates for radium-223. Radium-223 therapy is well tolerated with most patients reporting declines in pain scores and BSI. Prostate 77:479–488, 2017.
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7.
  • Assel, Melissa J., et al. (författare)
  • Kallikrein markers performance in pretreatment blood to predict early prostate cancer recurrence and metastasis after radical prostatectomy among very high-risk men
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Prostate. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0270-4137.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To assess whether a prespecified statistical model based on the four kallikrein markers measured in blood—total, free, and intact prostate-specific antigen (PSA), together with human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2)—or any individual marker measured in pretreatment serum were associated with biochemical recurrence-free (BCR) or metastasis-free survival after radical prostatectomy (RP) in a subgroup of men with very high-risk disease. Methods: We identified 106 men treated at Mayo Clinic from 2004 to 2008 with pathological Gleason grade group 4 to 5 or seminal vesicle invasion at RP. Univariable and multivariable Cox models were used to test the association between standard predictors (Kattan nomogram and GPSM [Gleason, PSA, seminal vesicle and margin status] score), kallikrein panel, and individual kallikrein markers with the outcomes. Results: BCR and metastasis occurred in 67 and 30 patients, respectively. The median follow-up for patients who did not develop a BCR was 10.3 years (interquartile range = 8.2-11.8). In this high-risk group, neither Kattan risk, GPSM score, or the kallikrein panel model was associated with either outcome. However, after adjusting for Kattan risk and GPSM score, separately, preoperative intact PSA was associated with both outcomes while hK2 was associated with metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: Conventional risk prediction tools were poor discriminators for risk of adverse outcomes after RP (Kattan risk and GPSM risk) in patients with very high-risk disease. Further studies are needed to define the role of individual kallikrein marker forms in the blood to predict adverse prostate cancer outcomes after RP in this high-risk setting.
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8.
  • Aumueller, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Regional distribution of neuroendocrine cells in the urogenital duct system of the male rat
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0270-4137. ; 72:3, s. 326-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are frequently present in the human prostate and urethra, whereas they are lacking in the other urogenital organs. This study was undertaken as there are only few detailed studies available on the distribution, form and function of NE cells and the structure of excretory ducts of the accessory sex organs in the male rat.
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9.
  • Babiker, Adil A., et al. (författare)
  • Mapping pro- and antiangiogenic factors on the surface of prostasomes of normal and malignant cell origin
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 70:8, s. 834-847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels by capillary sprouting from pre-existing vessels. Tumor growth is angiogenesis-dependent and the formation of new blood vessels is associated with the increased expression of angiogenic factors. Prostasomes are secretory granules produced, stored and released by the glandular epithelial cells of the prostate. We investigated the expression of selected angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors on the surface of prostasomes of different origins as well as the direct effect of prostasomes on angiogenesis. METHODS: VEGF, endothelin-1, endostatin, and thrombospondin-1 were determined on prostasomes from seminal fluid and human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145,PC-3,LNCaP) using different immunochemical techniques. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were incubated with seminal and DU145 cell-prostasomes and with radioactive thymidine. The effect of prostasomes on angiogenesis was judged by measuring the uptake of labeled thymidine. The presence of any deleterious effects of prostasomes on the endothelial cells was investigated using thymidine assay and confocal laser microscopy. RESULTS: VEGF and endothelin-1 were determined on malignant cell-prostasomes (no difference between cell lines) but not determined on seminal prostasomes. The same applies for the expression of endostatin but with much higher expression on malignant cell-prostasomes with obvious differences between them. Seminal and DU145 cell-prostasomes were found to have anti-angiogenic effect which was more expressed by DU145 cell-prostasomes. No deleterious effect of prostasomes on endothelial function was detected using either thymidine assay or microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Prostasomes contain pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that function to counteract each other unless the impact from one side exceeds the other to bring about dysequilibrium.
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10.
  • Babiker, Adil A., et al. (författare)
  • Overexpression of ecto-protein kinases in prostasomes of metastatic cell origin
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 66:7, s. 675-686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Prostasomes are secretory granules produced, stored, and released by the glandular epithelial cells of the prostate. They express numerous enzymes whose physiological roles have so far not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of prostasomal protein kinases and ATPase.METHODS:The protein kinase activities of prostasomes isolated from seminal fluid and malignant prostate cell lines (PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP) were investigated using the model phosphorylation substrates histone and casein, as well as the plasma proteins C3 and fibrinogen, in combination with specific protein kinase inhibitors. The prostasomal ATPase activity was also evaluated. The expression of protein kinases and ATPase on prostasomes was verified by flow cytometry.RESULTS:Prostasomes (intact or solubilized with octylglucoside or saponin) from prostate cancer cells had higher expression of protein kinases A, C, and casein kinase II compared to prostasomes isolated from seminal plasma, resulting in higher phosphorylation of both exogenous and endogenous substrates. Using intact prostasomes, it was found that prostasomes of metastatic origin had lower ATPase activity, resulting in higher residual ATP available for the phosphorylation reaction. Finally, complement component C3 and fibrinogen (two proteins whose activities are modulated by phosphorylation) were identified as physiologically relevant phosphorylation substrates.CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that prostasomes are capable of modifying proteins possibly involved in the innate response by extracellular phosphorylation mediated by ecto-kinases. This is a novel mechanism by which prostatic malignant cells may interact with their environment.
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