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1.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 57:2, s. 716-726
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;).
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2.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, S., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic and Mechanistic Potential of Progesterone Sulfates in Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Pruritus Gravidarum
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 63:4, s. 1287-1298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A challenge in obstetrics is to distinguish pathological symptoms from those associated with normal changes of pregnancy, typified by the need to differentiate whether gestational pruritus of the skin is an early symptom of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) or due to benign pruritus gravidarum. ICP is characterized by raised serum bile acids and complicated by spontaneous preterm labor and stillbirth. A biomarker for ICP would be invaluable for early diagnosis and treatment and to enable its differentiation from other maternal diseases. Three progesterone sulfate compounds, whose concentrations have not previously been studied, were newly synthesized and assayed in the serum of three groups of ICP patients and found to be significantly higher in ICP at 9-15 weeks of gestation and prior to symptom onset (group 1 cases/samples: ICP n = 35/80, uncomplicated pregnancy = 29/100), demonstrating that all three progesterone sulfates are prognostic for ICP. Concentrations of progesterone sulfates were associated with itch severity and, in combination with autotaxin, distinguished pregnant women with itch that would subsequently develop ICP from pruritus gravidarum (group 2: ICP n = 41, pruritus gravidarum n = 14). In a third group of first-trimester samples all progesterone sulfates were significantly elevated in serum from low-risk asymptomatic women who subsequently developed ICP (ICP/uncomplicated pregnancy n = 54/51). Finally, we show mechanistically that progesterone sulfates mediate itch by evoking a Tgr5-dependent scratch response in mice. Conclusion: Our discovery that sulfated progesterone metabolites are a prognostic indicator for ICP will help predict onset of ICP and distinguish it from benign pruritus gravidarum, enabling targeted obstetric care to a high-risk population. Delineation of a progesterone sulfate-TGR5 pruritus axis identifies a therapeutic target for itch management in ICP.
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3.
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4.
  • Ajmera, Veeral H., et al. (författare)
  • MRI Assessment of Treatment Response in HIV-associated NAFLD: A Randomized Trial of a Stearoyl-Coenzyme-A-Desaturase-1 Inhibitor (ARRIVE Trial)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : WILEY. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 70:5, s. 1531-1545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aramchol, an oral stearoyl-coenzyme-A-desaturase-1 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce hepatic fat content in patients with primary nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, its effect in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated NAFLD is unknown. The aramchol for HIV-associated NAFLD and lipodystrophy (ARRIVE) trial was a double-blind, randomized, investigator-initiated, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of treatment with aramchol versus placebo in HIV-associated NAFLD. Fifty patients with HIV-associated NAFLD, defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proton density fat fraction (PDFF) amp;gt;= 5%, were randomized to receive either aramchol 600 mg daily (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in hepatic fat as measured by MRI-PDFF in colocalized regions of interest. Secondary endpoints included changes in liver stiffness using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), and exploratory endpoints included changes in total-body fat and muscle depots on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), whole-body MRI, and cardiac MRI. The mean (+/- standard deviation) of age and body mass index were 48.2 +/- 10.3 years and 30.7 +/- 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. There was no difference in the reduction in mean MRI-PDFF between the aramchol group at -1.3% (baseline MRI-PDFF 15.6% versus end-of-treatment MRI-PDFF 14.4%, P = 0.24) and the placebo group at -1.4% (baseline MRI-PDFF 13.3% versus end-of-treatment MRI-PDFF 11.9%, P = 0.26). There was no difference in the relative decline in mean MRI-PDFF between the aramchol and placebo groups (6.8% versus 1.1%, P = 0.68). There were no differences in MRE-derived and VCTE-derived liver stiffness and whole-body (fat and muscle) composition analysis by MRI or DXA. Compared to baseline, end-of-treatment aminotransferases were lower in the aramchol group but not in the placebo arm. There were no significant adverse events. Conclusion: Aramchol, over a 12-week period, did not reduce hepatic fat or change body fat and muscle composition by using MRI-based assessment in patients with HIV-associated NAFLD (clinicaltrials.gov ID:NCT02684591).
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5.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and risk of liver and bilary tract cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 60:3, s. 858-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however there is little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intra-hepatic bile duct (IBD) and gallbladder and bilary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n=125), GBTC (n=137) or IBD (n=34). Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.02-1.46, P=0.03; 1.90; 95%CI = 1.30-2.77, P=0.001; 2.25; 95%CI = 1.43-3.54, P=0.0005 and 2.09; 95%CI = 1.19-3.67, P=0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.05-1.42, P=0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95%CI = 1.25-2.11, P=0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95%CI = 2.20-50.90, P=0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin, and 0.46 for GLDH indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors.
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6.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and Metabolic Biomarkers and Risk of Liver and Biliary Tract Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1527-3350 .- 0270-9139. ; 60:3, s. 858-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however, there are little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD), and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n = 125), GBTC (n = 137), or IBD (n = 34). Using risk-set sampling, controls were selected in a 2: 1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection, and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMWadiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.02-1.46; P = 0.03; 1.90; 95% CI = 1.30-2.77; P = 0.001; 2.25; 95% CI = 1.43-3.54; P = 0.0005; and 2.09; 95% CI = 1.19-3.67; P = 0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05-1.42; P = 0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.25-2.11; P = 0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95% CI = 2.20-50.90; P = 0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMW adiponectin and 0.46 for GLDH, indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors.
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7.
  • Arkadopoulos, N, et al. (författare)
  • Intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolongs survival in anhepatic rats
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 28:5, s. 1365-1370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic, Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic, Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group I anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta 1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P < .01), Additionally, at 12 hours post-hepatectomy, transplanted rats had significantly lower blood ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta 1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls, In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta 1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.
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8.
  • Bertran, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • Overactivation of the TGF-β pathway confers a mesenchymal-like phenotype and CXCR4-dependent migratory properties to liver tumor cells
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 58:6, s. 2032-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • UNLABELLED: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is an important regulatory suppressor factor in hepatocytes. However, liver tumor cells develop mechanisms to overcome its suppressor effects and respond to this cytokine by inducing other processes, such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to tumor progression and dissemination. Recent studies have placed chemokines and their receptors at the center not only of physiological cell migration but also of pathological processes, such as metastasis in cancer. In particular, CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) / chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) have been revealed as regulatory molecules involved in the spreading and progression of a variety of tumors. Here we show that autocrine stimulation of TGF-β in human liver tumor cells correlates with a mesenchymal-like phenotype, resistance to TGF-β-induced suppressor effects, and high expression of CXCR4, which is required for TGF-β-induced cell migration. Silencing of the TGF-β receptor1 (TGFBR1), or its specific inhibition, recovered the epithelial phenotype and attenuated CXCR4 expression, inhibiting cell migratory capacity. In an experimental mouse model of hepatocarcinogenesis (diethylnitrosamine-induced), tumors showed increased activation of the TGF-β pathway and enhanced CXCR4 levels. In human hepatocellular carcinoma tumors, high levels of CXCR4 always correlated with activation of the TGF-β pathway, a less differentiated phenotype, and a cirrhotic background. CXCR4 concentrated at the tumor border and perivascular areas, suggesting its potential involvement in tumor cell dissemination.CONCLUSION: A crosstalk exists among the TGF-β and CXCR4 pathways in liver tumors, reflecting a novel molecular mechanism that explains the protumorigenic effects of TGF-β and opens new perspectives for tumor therapy.
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9.
  • Chen, Chi-Kuan, et al. (författare)
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 antagonizes MET receptor activation to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma vascular invasion by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B recruitment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 59:3, s. 974-985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • UNLABELLED: Leukocyte cell-derived chemotoxin 2 (LECT2) has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been completely defined. Here, we employ a LECT2-affinity column plus liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to identify LECT2-binding proteins and found that MET receptor strongly interacted with LECT2 protein. Despite the presence of hepatocyte growth factor, the LECT2 binding causes an antagonistic effect to MET receptor activation through recruitment of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. The antagonistic effect of LECT2 on MET activation also mainly contributes to the blockage of vascular invasion and metastasis of HCC. Furthermore, serial deletions and mutations of LECT2 showed that the HxGxD motif is primarily responsible for MET receptor binding and its antagonistic effects.CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a novel, specific inhibitory function of LECT2 in HCC by the direct binding and inactivation of MET, opening a potential avenue for treating MET-related liver cancer.
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10.
  • Dalgard, Olav, et al. (författare)
  • Pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 14 versus 24 weeks in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 and rapid virological response
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1527-3350 .- 0270-9139. ; 47:1, s. 35-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A recent nonrandomized pilot trial showed that hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with genotype 2/3 and rapid virological response (RVR) had a 90% sustained virological response (SVR) rate after 14 weeks of treatment. We aimed to assess this concept in a randomized controlled trial. In the trial, 428 treatment-naive HCV RNA-positive patients with genotype 2 or 3 were enrolled. Patients with RVR were randomized to 14 (group A) or 24 (group B) weeks of treatment. Patients were treated with pegylated interferon alpha-26 (1.5 mu g/kg) subcutaneously weekly and ribavirin (800-1400 mg) orally daily. The noninferiority margin was set to be 10% between the two groups with a one-sided 2.5% significance level. RVR was obtained in 302 of 428 (71%), and 298 of these were randomized to group A (n = 148) or group B (n = 150). In the intention-to-treat analysis, SVR rates were 120 of 148 (81.1%) in group A and 136 of 150 (90.7%) in group B (difference, 9.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-17.7). Among patients with an HCV RNA test 24 weeks after the end of treatment, 120 of 139 (86.3%) patients in group A achieved SVR compared with 136 of 146 (93.2%) in group B (difference, 6.9%; 95% confidence interval, -0.1 to + 13.9). Conclusion: We cannot formally claim that 14 weeks of treatment is noninferior to 24 weeks of treatment. However, the SVR rate after 14 weeks of treatment is high, and although longer treatment may give slightly better SVR, we believe economical savings and fewer side effects make it rational to treat patients with genotype 2 or 3 and RVR for only 14 weeks.
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