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  • Nordenström, A., et al. (författare)
  • Are carriers of CYP21A2 mutations less vulnerable to psychological stress? A population-based national cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0300-0664. ; 86:3, s. 317-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common monogenic autosomal recessive disorders with an incidence of one in 15 000. About one in 70 individuals in the general population are carriers of a severe CYP21A2 mutation. It has been suggested that this confers a survival advantage, perhaps as a result of increased activity in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. We investigated vulnerability to psychological stress in obligate carriers. Method The Swedish CAH Registry encompasses more than 600 patients. Parents, that is obligate carriers of the CYP21A2 mutation, were identified through the Multigeneration Register. The diagnosis of the child was used as the psychological stressor. Psychiatric diagnoses before and after the birth of a child with CAH were compared to those of controls derived from (i) the general population, (ii) parents of children with hypospadias and (iii) parents of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM). Results Parents of children with CAH had less risk of being diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder (OR, 0 6), an affective disorder (OR, 0 5) or substance misuse (OR, 0 5) after the diagnosis of the child, compared to the general population. Their risk was also decreased compared to parents of a child with hypospadias (OR, 0 6, 0 4 and 0 2, respectively) and parents of a child with T1DM (OR 0 7, 0 6 and 0 2, respectively). The CYP21A2 carriers had a lower risk of developing mood and stress-related disorders after the diagnosis of the child. Conclusion Obligate CYP21A2 carriers had a reduced risk of a psychiatric diagnosis and were less vulnerable to a psychologically stressful situation, at least with respect to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis. This indicates a better ability to cope with psychological stress among heterozygous carriers of severe CYP21A2 mutations, which may contribute to the apparent survival advantage
  • Ahern, Tomás, et al. (författare)
  • Natural history, risk factors and clinical features of primary hypogonadism in ageing men : Longitudinal Data from the European Male Ageing Study
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-0664. ; 85:6, s. 891-901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: In ageing men, the incidence and clinical significance of testosterone (T) decline accompanied by elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) are unclear. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical features associated with the development of biochemical primary hypogonadism (PHG, T < 10·5 nmol/l and LH>9·4U/l) in ageing men. Design, Patients and Measurements: A prospective observational cohort survey of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years, followed up for 4·3 years. Men were classified as incident (i) PHG (eugonadal [EUG, T ≥ 10·5 nmol/l] at baseline, PHG at follow-up), persistent (p) PHG (PHG at baseline and follow-up), pEUG (EUG at baseline and follow-up) and reversed (r) PHG (PHG at baseline, EUG at follow-up). Predictors and changes in clinical features associated with the development of PHG were analysed by regression models. Results: Of 1,991 men comprising the analytical sample, 97·5% had pEUG, 1·1% iPHG, 1·1% pPHG and 0·3% rPHG. The incidence of PHG was 0·2%/year. Higher age (>70 years) [OR 12·48 (1·27-122·13), P = 0·030] and chronic illnesses [OR 4·24 (1·08-16·56); P = 0·038] predicted iPHG. Upon transition from EUG to PHG, erectile function, physical vigour and haemoglobin worsened significantly. Men with pPHG had decreased morning erections, sexual thoughts and haemoglobin with increased insulin resistance. Conclusions: Primary testicular failure in men is uncommon and predicted by old age and chronic illness. Some clinical features attributable to androgen deficiency, but not others, accompanied the T decline in men who developed biochemical PHG. Whether androgen replacement can improve sexual and/or physical function in elderly men with PHG merits further study.
  • Ahlström, Tommy, et al. (författare)
  • Correlation between plasma calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a community-based cohort of men and women
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 71:5, s. 673-678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: In recent years, an association has been noted between several abnormalities that characterize the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). These abnormalities include dyslipidaemia, obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. The correlations between plasma calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the variables in the MetS in a normal population are still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To describe correlations between plasma calcium and PTH and the various abnormalities present in the MetS in a healthy population.DESIGN: We studied 1016 healthy individuals from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) population of 70 years old, by means of plasma analyses of calcium, PTH, creatinine, lipids, insulin and glucose, as well as by standardized blood pressure measurements. Further, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were determined.RESULTS: The more National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for the MetS that were met, the higher the s-PTH and albumin-corrected s-calcium. Further, positive correlations between plasma calcium and BMI (P = 0.0003), waist circumference (P = 0.0009) and insulin resistance (P = 0.079) were found. PTH and BMI (P < 0.0001), waist circumference (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0034), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0008), serum triglycerides (P = 0.0003) and insulin resistance (P = 0.0003) were positively correlated, whereas serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) (P = 0.036) and PTH were negatively correlated.CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PTH correlates with several of the metabolic factors included in the MetS within a normocalcaemic population. In addition, individuals with mild pHPT present significantly more NCEP criteria for MetS. We postulate that increased levels of PTH in pHPT may be associated with the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in pHPT.
  • Almqvist, Erik G, et al. (författare)
  • Increased plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 65:6, s. 760-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with heart disease. The aims of the present study were to evaluate how cardiac function and secretion of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) correlate in patients with mild PHPT, and how the plasma level of NT-proBNP is influenced by cure of the parathyroid disease. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Forty-two patients with PHPT without symptoms of heart disease were examined before and 1 year after curative parathyroidectomy. MEASUREMENTS: Plasma or serum concentrations of NT-proBNP, calcium, PTH, creatinine, oestradiol, testosterone and SHBG were measured. Cardiac function was evaluated by equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA). RESULTS: At baseline, NT-proBNP levels correlated negatively with systolic function [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), P < 0.001]. Twelve per cent of the patients had NT-proBNP levels above normal reference values preoperatively. One year postoperatively, the corresponding proportion was 21%. The mean plasma concentration of NT-proBNP increased after parathyroidectomy (P < 0.01) in parallel with a dip in diastolic function (peak filling rate, P < 0.05) and a falling trend in systolic function (LVEF, P = 0.08). The postoperative percentage changes in circulating NT-proBNP and total oestradiol correlated positively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild PHPT and normal renal function may have high levels of circulating NT-proBNP despite the absence of symptomatic heart disease. Cure of the parathyroid disease is followed by a further increase in NT-proBNP secretion in parallel with ERNA measures, indicating subclinical changes in heart function. These results are in line with data indicating an association between PHPT and increased risk of premature death.
  • Alvehus, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue IL-8 is increased in normal weight women after menopause and reduced after gastric bypass surgery in obese women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 77:5, s. 684-690
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:  The menopausal transition is characterized by increased body fat accumulation, including redistribution from peripheral to central fat depots. This distribution is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are linked to low-grade inflammation. We determined whether postmenopausal women have higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared to premenopausal women. We also wanted to determine if these markers are reduced by stable weight loss in obese women. Design and methods:  Anthropometric data, blood samples, and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from normal weight premenopausal and postmenopausal women and obese women before and 2 years after gastric bypass surgery. Serum protein levels and adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers were investigated. Results:  IL-8 expression in adipose tissue and circulating levels were higher in postmenopausal versus premenopausal women. IL-8 expression was associated with waist circumference, independent of menopausal status. IL-6 expression and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were higher in postmenopausal versus premenopausal women. Two years after gastric bypass surgery, adipose expression of IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and MCP-1 decreased significantly. Serum insulin levels were associated with inflammation-related gene expression before gastric bypass surgery, but these associations disappeared after surgery. Conclusion:  Postmenopausal women have an increased inflammatory response in the subcutaneous fat and circulation. Inflammatory markers in adipose tissue decreased significantly after surgery-induced weight loss. This effect may be beneficial for metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk after weight loss. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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