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  • Aarts, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data :  
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 29:6, s. 1041-1046
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong></p><p>There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong></p><p>A descriptive longitudinal, prospective study design was used in which 506 mother-infant pairs were included. The mothers completed daily recordings on infant feeding during the first nine months after birth. A research assistant conducted fortnightly home visits with structured interviews. The resulting data on breastfeeding patterns are presented in two different ways: analysis of 'current status' data based on a single 24-hour recording of infant feeding at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and analysis of data 'since birth', i.e. data on infant feeding for every day, starting from birth until the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p><p>A wide discrepancy between the results obtained from the two analyses was found. The difference in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was over 40 percentage points at both 2 and 4 months of age (92% versus 51% at 2 months and 73% versus 30% at 4 months) and 9 percentage points at 6 months (11% versus 1.8%).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong></p><p>Current status indicators based on a 24-hour period may be inadequate and even misleading for many purposes. We propose that in many studies an indicator called 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' could be added.</p>
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
  • Adami, HO, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology, medicine and public health
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International journal of epidemiology. - 0300-5771. ; 28:5, s. S1005-S1008
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Agardh, E.E, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic position at three points in life in association with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in middle-aged Swedish men and women
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 36:1, s. 84-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>It has been suggested that low socio-economic position(SEP) during childhood and adolescence predicts risk of adulttype 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations between type2 diabetes and childhood SEP (fathers’ occupational position),participants’ education and adult SEP (participants’occupational position). To determine possible independent associationsbetween early SEP (fathers’ occupational position andparticipants’ education) and disease, we adjusted foradult SEP and factors present in adult life associated withtype 2 diabetes.</p><p><strong></strong> </p><p><strong>Methods</strong></p><p>This cross-sectional study comprised 3128 men and 4821women aged 35–56 years. All subjects have gone througha health examination and answered a questionnaire on lifestylefactors. At the health centre, an oral glucose tolerance testwas administered and identified 55 men and 52 women with previouslyundiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIswere calculated in multiple logistic regression analyses.</p><p><strong></strong> </p><p><strong>Results</strong></p><p>The age-adjusted RRs of type 2 diabetes if having afather with middle occupational position were 2.3 [Confidenceinterval (CI:1.0–5.1) for women and, 2.0 (CI:0.7–5.6)for men]. Moreover, low education was associated with type 2diabetes in women, RR = 2.5 (CI:1.2–4.9). Low occupationalposition in adulthood was associated with type 2 diabetes inwomen, RR = 2.7 (CI:1.3–5.9) and men, RR = 2.9 (CI:1.5–5.7).The associations between early SEP and type 2 diabetes disappearedafter adjustment for adult SEP and factors associated with type2 diabetes.</p><p><strong></strong> </p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p><p>The association between type 2 diabetes and low SEPduring childhood and adolescence in middle-aged Swedish subjectsdisappeared after adjustment for adult SEP and adult risk factorsof diabetes.</p>
  • Agardh, Emilie, et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes incidence and socio-economic position : a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 40:3, s. 804-818
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, the first to our knowledge, summarizing and quantifying the published evidence on associations between type 2 diabetes incidence and socio-economic position (SEP) (measured by educational level, occupation and income) worldwide and when sub-divided into high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Relevant case-control and cohort studies published between 1966 and January 2010 were searched in PubMed and EMBASE using the keywords: diabetes vs educational level, occupation or income. All identified citations were screened by one author, and two authors independently evaluated and extracted data from relevant publications. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models quantifying the associations. Results Out of 5120 citations, 23 studies, including 41 measures of association, were found to be relevant. Compared with high educational level, occupation and income, low levels of these determinants were associated with an overall increased risk of type 2 diabetes; [relative risk (RR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-1.51], (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57) and (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.04-1.88), respectively. The increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries, although based on limited data in middle- and low-income countries. Conclusions The risk of getting type 2 diabetes was associated with low SEP in high-, middle- and low-income countries and overall. The strength of the associations was consistent in high-income countries, whereas there is a strong need for further investigation in middle- and low-income countries.</p>
  • Ahlborg, Gunnar, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • Shift work, nitrous oxide exposure and subfertility among Swedish midwives
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771. ; 25:4, s. 783-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Shift work and nitrous oxide exposure have both been suspected of having adverse influence on the reproductive performance of health workers. Time to pregnancy has been suggested as a sensitive measure of fecundity in occupationally exposed groups. We investigated the effects of shift work and nitrous oxide exposure on the fertility of Swedish midwives. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all members of the Swedish Midwives Association who were born 1940 or thereafter, 3985 in all. Eighty-four per cent responded. Detailed information on the number of menstrual cycles required to achieve pregnancy and the working conditions during that period were obtained concerning the most recent, planned pregnancy occurring after 1983. The per cycle probability of becoming pregnant was calculated for each exposure category, and the relation to the unexposed was expressed as fecundability ratios. RESULTS: Midwives who worked two-shift, three-shift rotas, or only nights had reduced fertility compared to those working in the day time. The fecundability ratios were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.94), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-0.98), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.64-1.03), respectively, after adjustment for covariates. No effect of nitrous oxide exposure was noted except in the small group reporting that they assisted at more than 30 deliveries per month when nitrous oxide was used (fecundability ratio = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.95). CONCLUSION: Shift work and frequent, high occupational exposure to nitrous oxide may have a negative influence on the ability of women to become pregnant.
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