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1.
  • Aarts, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data :  
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 29:6, s. 1041-1046
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong></p><p>There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong></p><p>A descriptive longitudinal, prospective study design was used in which 506 mother-infant pairs were included. The mothers completed daily recordings on infant feeding during the first nine months after birth. A research assistant conducted fortnightly home visits with structured interviews. The resulting data on breastfeeding patterns are presented in two different ways: analysis of 'current status' data based on a single 24-hour recording of infant feeding at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and analysis of data 'since birth', i.e. data on infant feeding for every day, starting from birth until the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p><p>A wide discrepancy between the results obtained from the two analyses was found. The difference in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was over 40 percentage points at both 2 and 4 months of age (92% versus 51% at 2 months and 73% versus 30% at 4 months) and 9 percentage points at 6 months (11% versus 1.8%).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong></p><p>Current status indicators based on a 24-hour period may be inadequate and even misleading for many purposes. We propose that in many studies an indicator called 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' could be added.</p>
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2.
  • Agardh, E.E, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic position at three points in life in association with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in middle-aged Swedish men and women
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 36:1, s. 84-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>It has been suggested that low socio-economic position(SEP) during childhood and adolescence predicts risk of adulttype 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations between type2 diabetes and childhood SEP (fathers’ occupational position),participants’ education and adult SEP (participants’occupational position). To determine possible independent associationsbetween early SEP (fathers’ occupational position andparticipants’ education) and disease, we adjusted foradult SEP and factors present in adult life associated withtype 2 diabetes.</p><p><strong></strong> </p><p><strong>Methods</strong></p><p>This cross-sectional study comprised 3128 men and 4821women aged 35–56 years. All subjects have gone througha health examination and answered a questionnaire on lifestylefactors. At the health centre, an oral glucose tolerance testwas administered and identified 55 men and 52 women with previouslyundiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIswere calculated in multiple logistic regression analyses.</p><p><strong></strong> </p><p><strong>Results</strong></p><p>The age-adjusted RRs of type 2 diabetes if having afather with middle occupational position were 2.3 [Confidenceinterval (CI:1.0–5.1) for women and, 2.0 (CI:0.7–5.6)for men]. Moreover, low education was associated with type 2diabetes in women, RR = 2.5 (CI:1.2–4.9). Low occupationalposition in adulthood was associated with type 2 diabetes inwomen, RR = 2.7 (CI:1.3–5.9) and men, RR = 2.9 (CI:1.5–5.7).The associations between early SEP and type 2 diabetes disappearedafter adjustment for adult SEP and factors associated with type2 diabetes.</p><p><strong></strong> </p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p><p>The association between type 2 diabetes and low SEPduring childhood and adolescence in middle-aged Swedish subjectsdisappeared after adjustment for adult SEP and adult risk factorsof diabetes.</p>
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3.
  • Agardh, Emilie, et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes incidence and socio-economic position : a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 40:3, s. 804-818
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, the first to our knowledge, summarizing and quantifying the published evidence on associations between type 2 diabetes incidence and socio-economic position (SEP) (measured by educational level, occupation and income) worldwide and when sub-divided into high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Relevant case-control and cohort studies published between 1966 and January 2010 were searched in PubMed and EMBASE using the keywords: diabetes vs educational level, occupation or income. All identified citations were screened by one author, and two authors independently evaluated and extracted data from relevant publications. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models quantifying the associations. Results Out of 5120 citations, 23 studies, including 41 measures of association, were found to be relevant. Compared with high educational level, occupation and income, low levels of these determinants were associated with an overall increased risk of type 2 diabetes; [relative risk (RR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-1.51], (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57) and (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.04-1.88), respectively. The increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries, although based on limited data in middle- and low-income countries. Conclusions The risk of getting type 2 diabetes was associated with low SEP in high-, middle- and low-income countries and overall. The strength of the associations was consistent in high-income countries, whereas there is a strong need for further investigation in middle- and low-income countries.</p>
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5.
  • Airaksinen, Jaakko, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of smoking cessation on work disability risk a longitudinal study analysing observational data as non-randomized nested pseudo-trials
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 48:2, s. 415-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background</p><p>Smoking increases disability risk, but the extent to which smoking cessation reduces the risk of work disability is unclear. We used non-randomized nested pseudo-trials to estimate the benefits of smoking cessation for preventing work disability.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We analysed longitudinal data on smoking status and work disability [long-term sickness absence (≥90 days) or disability pension] from two independent prospective cohort studies—the Finnish Public Sector study (FPS) (<em>n </em>= 7393) and the Health and Social Support study (HeSSup) (<em>n</em> = 2701)—as ‘nested pseudo-trials’. All the 10 094 participants were smokers at Time 1 and free of long-term work disability at Time 2. We compared the work disability risk after Time 2 of the participants who smoked at Time 1 and Time 2 with that of those who quit smoking between these times.</p><p>Results</p><p>Of the participants in pseudo-trials, 2964 quit smoking between Times 1 and 2. During the mean follow-up of 4.8 to 8.6 years after Time 2, there were 2197 incident cases of work disability across the trials. Quitting smoking was associated with a reduced risk of any work disability [summary hazard ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–0.98]. The hazard ratio for the association between quitting smoking and permanent disability pension (928 cases) was of similar magnitude, but less precisely estimated (0.91, 95% CI 0.81–1.02). Among the participants with high scores on the work disability risk score (top third), smoking cessation reduced the risk of disability pension by three percentage points. Among those with a low risk score (bottom third), smoking cessation reduced the risk by half a percentage point.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Our results suggest an approximately 10% hazard reduction of work disability as a result of quitting smoking.</p>
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7.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity, mediating factors and risk of colon cancer : insights into adiposity and circulating biomarkers from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 46:6, s. 1823-1835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There is convincing evidence that high physical activity lowers the risk of colon cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine the extent to which body fatness and biomarkers of various biologically plausible pathways account for the association between physical activity and colon cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 519 978 men and women aged 25 to 70 years followed from 1992 to 2003. A total of 713 incident colon cancer cases were matched, using risk-set sampling, to 713 controls on age, sex, study centre, fasting status and hormonal therapy use. The amount of total physical activity during the past year was expressed in metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-h/week. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at study baseline. High physical activity was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer: relative risk a parts per thousand&lt;yen&gt;91 MET-h/week vs &lt; 91 MET-h/week = 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57 to 0.96]. In mediation analyses, this association was accounted for by waist circumference: proportion explained effect (PEE) = 17%; CI: 4% to 52%; and the biomarkers soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R): PEE = 15%; 95% CI: 1% to 50% and 5-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D): PEE = 30%; 95% CI: 12% to 88%. In combination, these factors explained 45% (95% CI: 20% to 125%) of the association. Beyond waist circumference, sOB-R and 25[OH]D additionally explained 10% (95% CI: 1%; 56%) and 23% (95% CI: 6%; 111%) of the association, respectively. Promoting physical activity, particularly outdoors, and maintaining metabolic health and adequate vitamin D levels could represent a promising strategy for colon cancer prevention.</p>
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8.
  • Anantharaman, Devasena, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 45:3, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not understood.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multi-centre studies. Odds ratios and credible intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association of smoking and HPV seropositivity was consistent with that expected on the additive scale (synergy index [CrI]: 1.32 [0.51, 3.45]), suggesting they act as independent risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Smoking was consistently associated with increase in oropharyngeal cancer risk in models stratified by HPV16 seropositivity. In addition, we report that the prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer increases with smoking for both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative persons. The impact of smoking on HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer highlights the continued need for smoking cessation programmes for primary prevention of head and neck cancer.</p>
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9.
  • Anantharaman, Devasena, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 45:3, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not understood.</p><p>Methods: Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multicentre studies. Odds ratios and credible intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression.</p><p>Results: Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association of smoking and HPV seropositivity was consistent with that expected on the additive scale (synergy index [CrI]: 1.32 [0.51, 3.45]), suggesting they act as independent risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer.</p><p>Conclusions: Smoking was consistently associated with increase in oropharyngeal cancer risk in models stratified by HPV16 seropositivity. In addition, we report that the prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer increases with smoking for both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative persons. The impact of smoking on HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer highlights the continued need for smoking cessation programmes for primary prevention of head and neck cancer.</p>
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