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Sökning: L773:0300 8134

  • Resultat 1-10 av 21
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Abeysekera, John D.A., et al. (författare)
  • A head-model reconstruction based upon photogrammetric data from Sri Lankan adult males relevant to the design of headgear
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 18:2, s. 199-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Due to the large variability in heads and faces in one population, the standard anthropometric dimensions of the head, measured from anatomical landmarks alone, may not suffice for the design of fitting headgear, e.g., helmets. To provide adequate data of the shapes and contours of the head to the designer, appropriate head models sculptured using comprehensive head dimensions, must be developed. This paper describes (a) a procedure of collecting comprehensive anthropometric data of the head using a photogrammetric method and (b) a simple sculpturing technique to reconstruct a head model of the user population</p>
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  • Abeysekera, John, et al. (författare)
  • Some design recommendations to improve comfort in helmets : a case study from China
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 25:2, s. 145-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Unless the basic user needs are satisfied in safety helmets, it is difficult to get workers to wear them habitually and for long periods. Hotness, weight and fitting problems are major wearability issues that require improvements. The enormous need for an optimally designed helmet in China prompted a case study on comfort aspects in helmets. The subjective impressions of the wearers of test helmets provided useful information for design changes to improve comfort. The heat transfer measurements through helmets indicated the need for ventilation openings to be provided on the shell of plastic helmets. Due to the advantage of low weight and good ventilation, it is recommended that cane helmets be further developed to improve protection, wearability and durability, and subsequently be produced in large scale</p>
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6.
  • Abeysekera, John, et al. (författare)
  • Some design recommendations to improve comfort in helmets: a case study from China
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - Tokyo, Uni. of Tokyo Press.. - 0300-8134. ; 25, s. 145-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined Unless the basic user needs are satisfied in safety helmets, it is difficult to get workers to wear them habitually and for long periods. Hotness, weight and fitting problems are major wearability issues that require improvements. The enormous need for an optimally designed helmet in China prompted a case study on comfort aspects in helmets. The subjective impressions of the wearers of test helmets provided useful information for design changes to improve comfort. The heat transfer measurements through helmets indicated the need for ventilation openings to be provided on the shell of plastic helmets. Due to the advantage of low weight and good ventilation, it is recommended that cane helmets be further developed to improve protection, wearability and durability, and subsequently be produced in large scale.
7.
  • Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee, et al. (författare)
  • A model of ergonomics intervention in industry : case study in Japan
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 23:1, s. 7-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper presents the results of an ergonomics survey in four different Japanese work places. The survey consisted of two parts. In the first part, the physical and psycho-social problems of the female workers were investigated. Questionnaire techniques were used to assess musculoskeletal disorders in various parts of the body and of psycho-social stress at work as well as in the daily life situation. Furthermore, work posture analysis, task analysis, simple clinical tests and flexibility tests were conducted. In the second part, the ergonomics intervention practices in different types of Japanese work places were examined. Three different questionnaires were developed and used to collect information from representatives of employees, management and responsible governmental agents of the Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Ministry of Labor, with regard to ergonomic interventions at work places. Management, employees, and government representatives expressed desire for cooperation and participation for arrangement of the ergonomics intervention program. A model for appropriate ergonomics intervention in industry is developed with regard to physical and psycho-social problems at work. Factors influencing worker participation and the establishment of a dynamic system of ergonomics intervention at work places are discussed. Practical ways for improving the working conditions of female workers are: (i) cooperation between managers, workers, and government officers is regarded as vital for the ergonomics intervention program, (ii) worker participation, (iii) appropriate training course with regard to ergonomics education, and (iv) managerial support</p>
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8.
  • Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee, et al. (författare)
  • Ergonomics method for prevention of the musculoskeletal discomforts among female industrial workers : physical characteristics and work factors
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 22:2, s. 95-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In industrial work, working postures play an important role, separately and combined with other strain factors. The combined effects may be worse than those of single factors. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the body size, work postures and musculoskeletal discomforts between a group of female workers in a pharmaceutical plant and another group in a textile plant. Two hundred workers have participated in the following studies; (i) measuring anthropometric data in the standing and sitting positions, (ii) using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), and (iii) using the detail Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for analyzing the musculoskeletal troubles in different parts of the body. The investigation has identified five main factors associated with the musculoskeletal discomforts: (i) lack of worker selection and lack of appropriate training to prevent occupational hazards or work-related diseases, (ii) poor ergonomic design of the work place and task including work organization, (iii) poor working postures, (iv) lack of task variation, and (v) insufficient rest breaks. These could be improved by introducing ergonomic interventions for both adjusting the individual work places and the task performed. It is necessary to consider preventive measures for musculoskeletal disorders, especially for female workers in industrially developing countries. Ergonomic aspects of the preventive measures should include: (a) consideration of appropriate worker selection for various works with sufficient training and instruction, (b) ergonomic redesign of work places, and (c) ergonomic considerations in work organization.</p>
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9.
  • Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee, et al. (författare)
  • Musculoskeletal discomfort and feeling of fatigue among female professional workers : the need for ergonomics consideration
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 20:2, s. 257-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Subjective feeling of general fatigue and physiological strain were studied in one hundred female professional employees of industrial worker and full-time nurses. Using an interview questionnaire the feeling of fatigue were studied. The subjects were asked to indicate on the body diagram all the areas of musculoskeletal pain from which they perceived discomfort. Furthermore physical strength test consisting of grip test, back and leg strength test were carried out before and after work on all subjects. The results indicated that the two groups of employees showed different symptoms of "pain" and/or "fatigue," with regard to the different parts of body. It was also noted that the physical strength after work was lower for both groups as compared to before work and even lower for the industrial workers than the nurses. The feeling of fatigue between the two investigated groups was not significantly different, but for the musculoskeletal pain was highly significantly different. The worker group used also more pain-killing drugs for releasing the muscle pain. It was evident that ergonomics intervention for female professional workers was of great importance and urgency, particularly for making the workplace more human. Improvement of the working conditions, better organization of work, and ergonomics interventions are suggested as necessary measures for reduction of pain and feeling of discomfort</p>
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10.
  • Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee, et al. (författare)
  • Musculoskeletal disorders of female workers and ergonomics problems in five different industries of a developing country
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 22:1, s. 29-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>An ergonomics survey was carried out using interviews based on Standardized Nordic Questionnaires for evaluating musculoskeletal disorders of 1,000 female workers in five different industries in Thailand, viz. garment, fertilizer, pharmaceutical, textile, and cigarette. A checklist used in an ILO study for examining ergonomics problems was used for identifying ergonomics problems. The results show that about 50% of the female workers experienced a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in their lower backs, particularly the textile workers. The musculoskeletal symptoms of each body region were significant in each industry during the last year and the preceding 7 days (p < 0.05). Other ergonomics problems in the survey industries included heavy manual handling, prolonged sitting and standing, awkward work postures, poor machine design and operation, high repetitive and monotonous movements, poor work organization, and unsatisfactory working environments. Based on the results of this survey, it became obvious that ergonomics problems related to occupational health and safety of female workers seem to fall into three categories: (i) poor working practices and workplace programmes without sufficient knowledge of ergonomics principles, (ii) lack of adjustment to local population of imported machinery and equipment and their use, and (iii) lack of appropriate work organization. The findings demonstrate the need and the importance for ergonomics intervention in industrially developing country using low-cost improvements and appropriate training methods. It also indicates that research in ergonomics applications is needed, considering the specific characteristics of the industrially developing country.</p>
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